al-anfall

Al Anfal Campaign – World History – Free PDF Download

 

AL ANFAL CAMPAIGN

  • The Anfal campaign began in 1986, and lasted until 1989, and was headed by Ali Hassan al-Majid, a cousin of Iraqi President Saddam.
  • The Anfal campaign included the use of ground offensives, aerial bombing, systematic destruction of settlements, mass deportation, firing squads, and chemical warfare, which earned al-Majid the nickname of “Chemical Ali”.
  • Thousands of civilians were killed during the anti-insurgent campaigns stretching from the northern spring of 1987, to the northern fall of 1988.
  • The attacks were part of a long campaign that destroyed approximately 4,500 Kurdish and displaced at least a million of the country’s estimated 3.5 million Kurdish population. Amnesty International collected the names of more than 17,000 people who had “disappeared” in 1988.According to the Iraqi prosecutors and Kurdish officials, as many as 180,000 people were killed.

AL ANFAL GENOCIDE

  • In March 1987, Ali Hassan al-Majid was appointed secretary-general of the Ba’ath Party’s Northern Bureau, which included Iraqi Kurdistan.
  • Anfal, officially conducted in 1988, had eight stages (Anfal 1 – Anfal 8) altogether, seven of which targeted areas controlled by the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan.
  • For those assaults, the Iraqis mustered up to 200,000 soldiers with air support against Kurdish guerrilla forces that numbered no more than a few thousand.

AL ANFAL GENOCIDE

  • The first Anfal stage was conducted between 23 February and 18 March 1988. It was targeted the Jafali Valley at the border to Iran, where the headquarters of the PUK was seated.
  • The villages  were attacked with poison gas. During mid March, the PUK, in an alliance with Iranian troops and other Kurdish factions, captured Halabja.This led to the poison gas attack on Halabja on 16 March 1988.
  • During the first Anfal campaign no prisoners were made by the Iraqi army.

AL ANFAL GENOCIDE

  • During the second Anfal from 22 March and 2 April 1988 the region Qara Dag, southwest of the city Suleimanya, was targeted.
  • Many fugitives were detained by the Iraqi forces, and the men were separated from the women. The men were not seen again. The women were transported to camps.
  • In the next Anfal campaign from 7 April to 20 April 1988, the Garmian region east of Suleimanya was targeted. In this campaign many women and children disappeared.

AL ANFAL GENOCIDE

  • Anfal 4 took place between 3 – 8 May 1988. Many of the ones who surrendered were arrested. Men were separated from the women.
  • Anfal 5,6,7 attacks between 15 May and 16 of August 1988 .The Anfal 5 failed completely, therefore two more attacks were necessary to gain Iraqi governmental control over the valleys.After the Anfal 7 Attack the valleys were under the control of the Iraqi government.
  • The last Anfal was aimed at the region controlled by the KDP, Badinan and took place from 25 August to 6 September 1988. After tens of thousands of Kurds fled to Turkey, the Iraqi Army blocked the route to Turkey on the 26 August 1988.

CONCENTRATION CAMPS

  • When captured, Kurdish populations were transported to detention centers (notably Topzawa) and adult and teenage males viewed as possible insurgents were separated from the civilians.
  • After a few days in the camps, the men accused of being insurgents were trucked off to be killed in mass executions. Only a handful survived the execution squads.
  • Even amidst this most systematic slaughter of adult men and boys, however, “hundreds of women and young children perished, too,”

AFTERMATH

  • In September 1988 the Iraqi Government was satisfied with its achievements. The male population between 15 and 50 has either been killed or fled.
  • The Kurdish resistance fled to Iran and was no longer a threat for Iraq. An amnesty was issued and the detained women, children and elderly were released.
  • Mass summary executions and mass disappearance of many tens of thousands of non-combatants, including large numbers of women and children, and sometimes the entire population of villages.The widespread use of chemical weapons, including mustard gas.

AFTERMATH

  • According to Human Rights Watch, during the Anfal campaign, the Iraqi government did the following:
  • Massacred 50,000 to 100,000 non-combatant civilians, including women and children.However, Kurdish officials have claimed the figure could be as high as 182,000.
  • Destroyed about 4,000 villages (out of 4,655) in Iraqi Kurdistan. Between April 1987, and August 1988, 250 towns and villages were exposed to chemical weapons.
  • Destroyed 1,754 schools, 270 hospitals, 2,450 mosques, and 27 churches;Wiped out around 90% of Kurdish villages in the targeted areas.

AFTERMATH

  • In June 2006, the Iraqi Special Tribunal announced that Saddam Hussein and six co-defendants would face trial on 21 August 2006, in relation to the Anfal campaign.
  • In December 2006, Saddam was put on trial for the genocide during Operation Anfal. The trial for the Anfal campaign was still underway on 30 December 2006, when Saddam Hussein was executed for his role in the unrelated Dujail Massacre.
  • Al-Majid was charged with war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. He was convicted in June 2007, and was sentenced to death and was hanged on 25 January 2010

 

 

 

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