Analysis Of Nobel Prize In Physics | Indian History | Free PDF Download

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ARTHUR ASHKIN

nobel 1

   

Born: 2 September 1922, New York, NY, USA

Prize motivation: “for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems”

 Prize share: ½

 GERARD MOUROU

Born: 22 June 1944, Albertville,

 France Prize motivation: “for their method of generating highintensity, ultra-short optical pulses”

Prize share: 1/4

DONNA STRICKLAND

Born: 27 May,1959 Canada

Prize motivation: “for their method of generating high-intensity, ultrashort optical                                                pulses”

 Prize share: 1/4

NOBEL PRIZE

  • The Nobel Prize is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
  • The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the prizes in 1895. The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in the fields of literature, medicine, physics, chemistry, economics and activism for peace.
  • In 2009, the monetary award was 10 million SEK (US$1.4 million). In June 2012, it was lowered to 8 million SEK. It is common for recipients to donate prize money to benefit scientific, cultural, or humanitarian causes

WORK OF ARTHUR ASHKIN

  • Dr. Ashkin was born in 1922 in New York City. He earned an undergraduate degree in physics from Columbia in 1947. He received a Ph.D. in nuclear physics from Cornell in 1952 and joined Bell Labs here he worked until 1991.
  • He developed optical tweezers which made it possible for scientists to hold, observe and move tiny objects with “laser beam fingers.” That means laboratories can examine and manipulate viruses, bacteria and other living cells without damaging them.

DEATH

  • In 1960, he suffered a heart attack. He was treated by top doctors in India, including his friend Dr Bidhan Chandra Roy, the then Chief Minister of West Bengal.
  • His health started deteriorating and he died on 7 March 1961 at the age of 74, from a cerebral stroke. At that time he was still in office as the Home Minister of India.

WORK OF DONA STRICKLAND ABD GERARD MOROUE

  • Donna Strickland, a Canadian who is an associate professor of physics at the University of Waterloo, received the prize on Tuesday for her work on high-intensity laser pulses.
  • Scientists had been trying to figure out how to amplify high-energy laser pulses without destroying the amplifiers. Dr. Strickland suggested stretching out the pulses in time, amplifying them and then compressing them again to the desired level of intensity.
  • Her work with Dr. Mourou “paved the way towards the shortest and most intense laser pulses ever created by mankind,”.

WORK OF DONA STRICKLAND AND GERARD MOUROU

  • Dr. Strickland and Dr. Mourou developed a method of generating high-intensity, ultrashort laser pulses, known as chirped pulse amplification.
  • The work has had a wide range of real-world applications, enabling manufacturers to drill tiny, precise holes and allowing for the invention of Lasik eye surgery

DEATH

  • In 1960, he suffered a heart attack. He was treated by top doctors in India, including his friend Dr Bidhan Chandra Roy, the then Chief Minister of West Bengal.
  • His health started deteriorating and he died on 7 March 1961 at the age of 74, from a cerebral stroke. At that time he was still in office as the Home Minister of India.

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