panipat

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LODI”S

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  • The Lodi dynasty was an Afghan dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526. It was the last dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, and was founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi when he replaced the Sayyid dynasty.
  • Bahlul Khan Lodi (1451–1489) was the nephew and son-in-law of Malik Sultan Shah Lodi, the governor of Sirhind in (Punjab), India.
  • Sikandar Lodi (1489–1517) (born Nizam Khan), the second son of Bahlul, succeeded him after his death on 17 July 1489 and took up the title Sikandar Shah.
  • Ibrahim Lodi (1517–1526), the youngest son of Sikandar, was the last Lodi Sultan of Delhi. He had the qualities of an excellent warrior, but he was rash and impolitic in his decisions and actions.

BACKGROUND

  • After losing Samarkand for the second time, Babur gave attention to conquer India as he reached the banks of the Chenab in 1519.
  • Until 1524, his aim was to only expand his rule to Punjab, mainly to fulfil his ancestor Timur’s legacy, since it used to be part of his empire.
  • At the time parts of north India were under the rule of Ibrahim Lodi of the Lodi dynasty, but the empire was crumbling and there were many defectors.
  • He received invitations from Daulat Khan Lodi, Governor of Punjab and Ala-ud-Din, uncle of Ibrahim.

BACKGROUND

  • Babur started for Lahore, Punjab, in 1524 .When Babur arrived at Lahore, the Lodi army marched out and his army was routed.
  • In response, Babur burned Lahore for two days, then marched to Dipalpur, placing Alam Khan, another rebel uncle of Lodi’s, as governor.
  • Alam Khan was quickly overthrown and fled to Kabul. In response, Babur supplied Alam Khan with troops who later joined up with Daulat Khan Lodi and together with about 30,000 troops, they besieged Ibrahim Lodi at Delhi.
  • He defeated them and drove Alam’s army off; and Babur realised Lodi would not allow him to occupy the Punjab

 TACTICS

    • Babur wanted Ibrahim Lodi to be offensive. He then divided his army into parts using a tactic called Tulghuma, which means dividing whole army into Right part, Left part and Center part.

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  • Babur further subdivided his Right and Left units into Rear and Forward units. Babur’s men surrounded whole army of Ibrahim Lodi. Central unit of Babur’s men were provided with chained carts(araba).
  • The presence of chained carts confused Ibrahim Lodi army. Once Babur men surrounded Lodis army, than they started attacking from all sides with musket fire, cannon fire and cavalry.

 TACTICS

  • Babur’s army with the help of two experienced Ottoman gunners used the gunpowder against Lodi’s army. Lodi was surprised to see guns in battle for the first time and his army has no answer for them.
  • It took nearly three hours for Ibrahim Lodi to know the strategy used by Babur and in three hours most of his army was killed.
  • Babur with his war tactics defeated Ibrahim Lodi. Ibrahim Lodi died on 21 April 1526.Thus Sulthan’s rule ended in India which resulted in establishment of Mughal dynasty in India.

TACTICS DEATH

  • In 1960, he suffered a heart attack. He was treated by top doctors in India, including his friend Dr Bidhan Chandra Roy, the then Chief Minister of West Bengal.
  • His health started deteriorating and he died on 7 March 1961 at the age of 74, from a cerebral stroke. At that time he was still in office as the Home Minister of India.


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