Chemistry Capsule For SSC CGL | Important Notes Free PDF Download

Chemistry By Dr. Gaurav Garg


 Brownian motion: the zig-zag movement of the small particles suspended in a
liquids (or gas) is called Brownian motion.
 Solutions: homogenous mixture of solute (the substance to be dissolved in liquid)
in solvent e.g. mixture of petrol & oil. Here, Concentration of a Solution is the
amount of solute present in a given amount (mass or volume) of solution. It is expressed as
Mass by mass percentage = (mass of solute/mass of solution) * 100.

Mass by volume percentage = (mass of solute/volume of solution) * 100
 Suspensions: heterogeneous mixture in which small particles of a solid are spread
throughout a liquid without dissolving in it eg. Chalk water mixture.
 Colliods: Kind of solution in which the size of solute particles is intermediate
between those in true solutions and those in suspensions eg. Soap solution,
starch solution, milk, jelly, fog, mist, sponge etc.

Note that: the scattering of a beam of light by particles in a colloid or particles in
a fine suspension is called Tyndall Effect.
 The Effect of temperature and pressure on the solubility of a substance:
1) The solubility of solids in liquids usually increases on increasing the
temperature and decreases on decreasing the temperature.
2) The solubility of solids in liquids remains unaffected by the changes in
3) The solubility of gases in liquids usually decreases on increasing the
temperature and increases on decreasing the temperature.
4) The solubility of gases in liquids usually increases on increasing the pressure
and decreases on decreasing the pressure.
 Separation of mixtures:
 Of solids a. Suitable Solvent : one constituent of a mixture is soluble in a particular
liquid solvent whereas the other constituent is a mixture
of sand and sugar can be separated using water as solvent.
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b. Sublimation is done when one constituent is capable of changing from
solid to vapours on heating or from vapours to solid on cooling .e.g.
Camphor, Iodine, Ammonium Chloride, Napthalene & Anthracene.
c. Magnet is used to separate a mixture of iron fillings & sulphur powder.
 Of a solid and a liquid
a. By filtration: the mixture of insoluble solid and liquid is poured into a
filter paper cone fixed in a funnel by using a glass rod as guide.
b. Centrifugation is the process of separating the suspended particles
from a liquid in which the mixture is rotated at a high speed to
centrifuge. It is commonly used for uranium enrichment, relying on the
slight mass difference between atoms of U238 and U235 in uranium
hexafluoride gas. This is faster than filtration.
c. Evaporation
d. Distillation
e. Purification by Crystallization: The process of cooling a hot,
concentrated solution of a substance to obtain its crystals.

f. Separation by Chromatography: It is a technique of separating two (or
more) dissolved solids which are present in a solution in very small
quantities. E.g. Black ink is a mixture of several coloured dyes which can
be separated by paper chromatography.
The paper is placed in a container with a shallow layer of solvent and sealed. As
the solvent rises through the paper, it meets the sample mixture, which starts
to travel up the paper with the solvent.
This paper is made of cellulose, a polar substance, and the compounds within the
mixture travel farther if they are nonpolar.

 Of liquids a. Separating Funnel : a mixture of 2 miscible liquids (e. Water &
kerosene oil) can be separated by a separating funnel based on the
difference in their densities.

b. Fractional Distillation is used to obtain a variety of products from
crude oil (a mixture of hydrocarbons), based on the principle that
lower hydrocarbons boil at a lower temperature than higher ones.


 Laws of Chemical Combination
a. Law of Conservation of Mass: This law states that mass can neither be
created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. The total mass of the
products is the same as the total mass of reactants.
b. Law of constant proportions: This law was stated by Proust. It states
that a pure chemical compound always consists of the same elements
combined together in a fixed proportion by weight e.g H2O prepared
from any source contains H & O in the ratio of 1:8 by mass.
 According to Dalton’s Atomic Energy
1. All matter is made of very tiny particles called atoms.
2. Atoms are indivisible particles, which cannot be created or destroyed in
chemical reaction.
3. Atoms of a given element are identical in mass & chemical properties.
(Ruled out after the discovery of isotopes).
4. Atoms of different elements have different mass & chemical properties.
(Ruled out after the discovery of isobars eg. Argon, Potassium and Calcium
have same atomic mass 40 but different atomic number 18, 19 & 20
5. When elements react, their atoms combine in simple whole number ratio.
Atomic Mass = Mass of one atom of the element
th part of the mass of one atom of carbon
 Atomicity: the number of atoms constituting a molecule. E.g. oxygen is diatomic.
 Mole Concept:
 Mole is a link between mass of a molecules and the number of atoms in
that molecule.
 A group of 6.022 X 1023 (avagadro number of) particles (atoms, molecules
or ions) of a substance is called the mole of that substance.
 1 mole of atoms of an element = gram atomic mass of the element
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e.g. for oxygen atom, gram atomic mass is 16 units. But for oxygen molecule (O2),
gram molecular mass = 2 X 16 = 32 units
Substance Symbol/ formula
Mass of 1 mole 1 mole contains
1 mole of H atom H 1 g 6.022 X 1023 hydrogen
1 mole of hydrogen
H2 2 X 1 = 2g 6.022 X 1023 hydrogen
1 mole of water H2O 2 + 16 = 18g 6.022 X 1023 water
1 mole of Ammonia
NH3 14 + 3 = 17g 6.022 X 1023 ammonia
Note that : isotones are the one with same number of neutrons e.g. H, He (2 each).
Isosters are molecules/ions with same number of atoms e.g. N2O , C2O
 Structure of Atom:
Atomic number = no. of protons = 6
Mass number = no. of protons + no. of
neutrons = 12.
Valence Electrons = those located in
the outermost shell which take part in
chemical reaction. Here, 4.
However, Valency of elements is defined as combining capacity of an atom by gaining
or losing valence electrons to gain octate state. E.g. Chlorine, atomic number = 17,
Configuration is 2 8 7. It needs only 1 electron to complete octate => its valency is 1.
The maximum no. of electrons present in a shell is given by 2n2

 Chemical Bonding
 IONIC OR ELECTROVALENT BOND: formed by complete transfer of one or
more electrons from valence shell of one atom to another. The ion losing
electron gains positive charge and is called cation. The one gaining electrons
(or negatively charged) is anion.
Condition for the formation of ionic bonds :
a. Low ionization energy – one of the two atoms forming the ionic bond must
have low ionization energy so that it can easily lose electron and can form
a cation.
b. High Electron Affinity – the other atom which is accepting electron should
high electron affinity so that the electron lost by the first atom is readily
accepted by the second atom.
c. Larger cation & smaller anion.
d. High lattice energy (energy given off when oppositely charged ions in the
gas phase come together to form a solid. and hydration energy (Heat
released when 1 mole of gaseous ions dissolve in sufficient water to give
an infinitely dilute solution).
1. Soluble in polar solvent.
2. High melting point and boiling point.
3. Good conductor in aqueous solution.
4. Non-inflammable.
5. Non-volatile.
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 Ionisation Energy: The energy required to remove an electron from the
outermost orbit of an isolated gaseous atom in its ground state. Along a Period,
Li < Be > B < C < O < N < F
This pattern can be explained by the factors given below:
1. Larger the size of atom, lower will be the ionisation energy.
2. Nuclear Charge: greater the nuclear charge, greater will be attraction of the
nucleus for the valence electrons, so will be ionisation energy.
3. Screening or Shielding effect: Greater the number of shells between the
nucleus and the valence electrons, lesser will be ionisation energy e.g. Lower
ionisation of B than Be id due to presence of more screening effect.
4. Presence of sub-shells: IE also depends upon the type s,p,d or f electrons
which are to be removed. S-electrons are closer to the nucleus & more tightly
held hence ionisation energy decreases in that order.
5. Stability of Configuration: Completely filled and exactly half filled sub-shells
impart extra stability which result in the higher IE. (IE of Nitrogen is greater
than oxygen because Nitrogen has stable half filled 2P sub level)
 COVALENT BOND: formed by mutual sharing of electrons between atoms.
a. Smaller the size, higher the covalency.
b. Electronegative element + Electronegative
c. High ionisation energy &
d. High electron affinity.
 CO-ORDINATE COVALENT BOND: characterized by one-sided sharing of electrons.
One of the combining atoms contributes both the electrons that form a bond
between them. Other atom does not contribute any of its own electrons but
acquires stable configuration by sharing the pairs of electrons contributed by the
1st atom e.g. HNO3

Valence electron in oxygen = 6
In nitrogen = 5
In hydrogen = 1
Nitrogen has completed its octate by
sharing 3 electrons with oxygen atoms
but still contributes its 2 electrons
through one-sided sharing to the third oxygen atom.
Properties of Elements Behaviour along PERIODS Behaviour along GROUPS
Atomic Size Decreases from left to right Increase from up to down
Ionisation Potential Increases from left to right Decreases down the group
Electronegativity Increases from left to right Decrease from up to down
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Chemical Reaction is the process in which new substances with new properties are
formed. During a chemical reaction, atoms of 1 element do not change into atoms of
another element. Only a rearrangement of atoms takes place.
Rate of Reaction = Change in concentration of a reactant
Time taken for change
 Factors affecting the rate of reaction:
1. Concentration of reactants.
2. Temperature.
3. Catalyst.
4. Presence of light affecting photochemical reactions.
5. Physical nature of reactants and
6. Chemical nature of the reaction.
 Types of Reaction
a. Exothermic Reaction: chemical reaction in which heat is evolved.
C + O2 -> CO2 +heat
b. Endothermic Reaction: chemical reaction in which heat is absorbed.
CaCO3 + heat -> CaO + CO2
Note that all decomposition reactions are endothermic.
c. Combination: 2/more substances combine to form a new substance.
2Mg + O2 -> 2MgO
d. Decomposition: A compound splits into 2/more simpler substances.
CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2
e. Displacement: one element takes the place of another in a compound.
CuSO4 + Zn -> ZnSO4 + Cu
f. Double Displacement: those reactions in which 2 compounds react by an
exchange of ions to form 2 new compounds.
AgNO3 + NaCl -> AgCl + NaNO3
Silver replaces sodium in sodium chloride and sodium replaces silver in
silver nitrate forming silver chloride and sodium nitrate respectively).

g. Oxidation : reactions involving addition of oxygen and/or removal of hydrogen.
Reduction : reactions involving addition of hydrogen and/or removal of oxygen.
Oxidising agent is ferrite because it helps in oxidation of CO.
Reducing agent is CO because it absorbed oxygen from ferrite.
h. Disproportion Reaction: where only 1 substance gets oxidised as well as reduced.
Cl2 + H2O -> HCl + HOCl (redox reaction where Cl is oxidised as well as reduced)
i. Neutralisation reaction: acid reacts with base to form salt.
NaOH + HCl -> NaCl + H2O
a. At Equilibrium, both the forward & the backward reactions proceed at the
same rate and hence, the equilibrium is dynamic in nature.
b. At Equilibrium, all macroscopic properties such as pressure, concentration,
density, colour etc. of the system become constant and remain unchanged
c. Chemical Equilibrium can be established only when none of the product is
allowed to escape out.
d. Chemical Equilibrium can be approached from either direction.
 Ionic equilibria:
1. Chemical reactions also takes place in solution in which generally ions
2. The substances which furnish ions are known as electrolytes which may be
acids, bases or salt.
3. The equilibrium is present between the unionized molecules of a particular
substance and the ions formed in the solution.
4. Equilibrium constant is related to the strength of electrolyte.
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 Ostwald dilution law for weak electrolytes:- It states that “at constant
temperature, the degree of dissociation for weak electrolytes is directly
proportional to square root of its dilution”.
Note:- This law is not for strong electrolytes because these are approximately
100% ionised at all dilutions and dilutions has no effect on their dissociation.
Applications of Ostwald Dilution Law:
a. In determine strength of weak acid or base.
b. In calculation of degree of dissociation.
c. In calculation of relative strength of acid or base.
d. In calculation of [H+
] and pH of aqueous solution.
 Ionic Product of Water: Water dissociates slightly to give hydrogen ion (H+
) and
hydroxide ions (OH-
). This is a reversible reaction in which most of the water
remains in the undissociated molecular form (H2O) at the equilibrium state.
Acids Bases
1. Tastes sour Tastes bitter, soapy in touch
2. Reacts with carbonates to form CO2 React with acids to neutralise them
3. e.g. HCl e.g. NaOH
Theories of Acids & Bases Limitations
Arrhenius: acids give H+ ions in
aqueous solution and bases give
in aqueous solution.
 Only limited to aqueous solutions.
 Cannot explain how CO2, SO2 are
acids or NH3, Na2CO3 are bases.
Bronsted-Lowry: acids are
proton donor & bases are proton
 AlCl3, BF3, SnCl2 are acids.

Lewis: acid is an e- acceptor & a
base is an electron donor.
 It fails to assign the strength of acids &
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 Indicators for testing acids and bases:
Indicator Colour changes in acid Colour changes in base
Litmus paper Blue litmus turns red Red litmus turns blue
Methyl Orange Red in acidic solution Yellow in basic solution
Phenolphthalein Turns colurless Turns pink
 pH value : for determining the strength of acids and bases.
pH = -log[H+]
 Importance of pH
a. In agriculture : by determining the type of the soil and deciding on
fertilisers to be used and crop to be sown.
b. In biological processes : by knowing the pH, we can adjust the medium
of biological processes like fermentation, enzyme hydrolysis,
sterilization etc.
c. In corrosion research : by measuring the pH of sea-water, the effect of
alkaline sea-water on the material used for building ships and
submarines is studied.
 Buffer Solution: a solution whose pH does not change when small amount of an
acid or a base is added in it. Its of three types:
a. Simple Buffer- weak acid + weak base e.g. CH3COONH4 , amino acids.
b. Acidic buffer-weak acid + its conjugate base or its salt formed with strong
base e.g. mixture of acetic acid & sodium acetate.
c. Basic Buffer- weak base + its conjugate acid or i ts salt formed with strong acid
e.g. mixture of NH4OH and NH4Cl in equimolar quantities.
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Common Salt
NaOH + HCl -> NaCl + H2O -Preservative in pickle, for cooking
-Manufacture soap Sodium Hydroxide Electrolysis of brine
2NaCl + 2H2O -> 2NaOH + CL2 + H2 -Textile fibre
Manufacture Paper -Oil Refining
Washing Soda
NaCl + NH3 + H2O + CO2 -> NaHCO3 +
2NaHCO3 -> Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O
Na2CO3 + 10H2O -> Na2CO3.10H2O
-Cleansing Agent
-Remove hardness of water
-Manufacture glass
Baking Soda
NaCl + NH3 + H2O + CO2 -> NaHCO3 +
-Used as antacid
– fire extinguishers
-cakes & breads
Bleaching powder or chloride of lime
Ca(OH)2 + Cl2 -> CaOCl2 + H2O
Passing chlorine gas over dry slaked
drinking water
-making wool
Plaster of Paris
CaSO4.2H2O -> CaSO4.1/2H2O +
-setting fractured bone, toys etc.
– its fire-proof


Physical Properties METALS NON-METALS
Malleable* & Ductile** Yes No, they are brittle
Hardness Generally hard except Na & K
Generally sift except diamond
Good conductors of heat Yes except lead No
Good conductors of electricity Yes except iron &
mercury No except graphite
used for electrodes
Lustrous Yes No except iodine
Sonorous Yes No
State at room temperature Generally solid May be any
Melting & boiling points High except Na, K Low
Density High except Na, K Low
*Malleable : can be thinned about sheets.
**Ductile : can be drawn into wires.
Chemical Properties METALS NON-METALS
With oxgen Form basic or amphoteric
oxides (those who show both
acidic and basic behaviours e.g.
Al2O3 and ZnO2)
Form acidic or neutral
oxides e.g. CO2, H2O.
With water Form oxide or hydroxides and
produce hydrogen gas
No reaction
With acids Only those metals displace
hydrogen which are above
hydrogen in the reactivity series
2Na + 2HCl -> 2NaCl + H2
Cu + HCl -> no reaction
No reaction
With salt solutions higher reactive metals displaces
lesser reactive one
CuSO4 + Zn -> ZnSO4 + Cu
More reactive non-metal
displaces less reactive one
2NaBr + Cl2 -> NaCl + Br2
With Chlorine Electrovalent chlorides : NaCl Covalent chlorides eg. HCl
With Hydrogen Metal hydrides eg. NaH Covalent hydrides eg. H2S
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 Reactivity Series of Metals:
Potassium K (Most Reactive Metal)
Sodium Na
Calcium Ca
Magnesium Mg
Aluminium stronger than hydrogen => Al
Zinc displaces hydrogen from its Zn
Iron compounds like water/acids Fe
Tin Sn
Lead Pb
Hydrogen H
Copper Cu
Mercury Hg
Silver less reactive than hydrogen Ag
Gold Au (Least Reactive)
 Metalloids : which exhibit some properties of metals and some other properties
of non-metals. Eg. Boron, Silicon & Germanium.
 Minerals & Ores :
The natural materials in which the metals or their compounds are found in earth
are called minerals. Those minerals from which the metal can be extracted
conveniently and profitably are ores.
Relative Abundance of metal on earth : Al > Fe > Ca > Na > K > Mg > Ti
The various process involved in extraction of metals from their ores and refining :
a. Concentration of ore/ benefication : removing unwanted material by
 Hydraulic washing : difference in density of ore & gangue
 Magnetic Separation
 Froth floatation process : for sulphide ores
 Leaching : ore is treated with suitable re-agent which dissolves ore
leaving behind impurities. This is used for bauxite. (Al ore)
b. Calcination: the process of heating ore below its melting point in the
presence of air to remove impurities and convert into metal oxides.
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c. Reduction of metal oxide to metal.
(when Aluminium powder is used, its called thermite reaction)
d. Refining . purification of metals through
o electrolyte refining : used for Cu, Au, Ag, Pb , Zn and Al.
o Liquidation: those metals which have impurities with melting point
higher than metal.
o Distillation : purify those which have low boiling points eg. Na, K, Zn
and Hg (mercury).
 Few related terminologies:
1. Gangue : impurities (undesirable particles)
2. Flux : substance added to ore to remove gangue
3. Slag : gangue +flux
4. Smelting : the process of heating ore above its melting point in excess air to
obtain pure metal.
5. Sintering : the process of crushing ore to reasonable size before concentration
of ore.
6. Thermite Reaction: the reduction of metal oxide to form metal by using
aluminium powder as a reducing agent is called thermite reaction.
7. Anodising: the process of forming a thick layer of aluminium oxide on an
aluminium object by making it anode during the electrolysis of dilute sulphuric
acid. This protects aluminium from further corrosion.
8. Galvanisation: is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or
iron, to prevent rusting.
9. Quenching: Steel is heated to bright redness and then suddenly cooled in
water or oil, it becomes extra-ordinary had and brittle.
10. Annealing: Steel is heated to a temperature well below red hot and then
cooled which turns it soft.
11.Tempering: By controlled heating of quenched steel (22-350 degree Celsius),
its brittleness can be removed without affecting its hardness.
 Hardness of Water: water which does not easily form lather with soap is known
as soft water. The hardness of water is due to presence of soluble salts of calcium
and magnesium.
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Note soaps are sodium salts of fatty acids.
Temporary hardness caused due to bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium can be
removed by boiling or adding lime.
Permanent hardness caused by chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium
can be removed by adding caustic soda or washing soda.
 Alloys
Homogenous mixture of 1 or more metals thus improving the various properties
(strength, hardness, resistance to corrosion, electrical conductivity, melting point) of
metals in the combination.
Alloys Composition Uses
Duralumin Al + Cu + Mg +
For making pressure cooker, aeroplanes
Magnalium Al + Mg To make balance beams and light instruments
ALNICO Al + Ni + Co + Fe For making magnets
Stainless steel Fe + Cr + Ni + C Utensils, surgical cutlery
Nickel Steel Fe + Ni Electrical wire, automobile parts
Steel Fe + C Nails, screws, bridges and railway lines
Brass Cu + Zn Decorative material, handles
Bronze Cu + Sn Statues, coins and medals
German silver Cu + Zn + Ni Ornaments
Rolled gold Cu + Al Cheap ornaments
Gun metal Cu + Sn + Zn + Pb Gun, barrels, gears and bearing
Dutch metal Cu + Zn Artificial jewellery
Solder Pb + Sn Soldering wire together
Amalgam Hg + others Used by dentist for filling in teeth
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 Allotropy : Substances which have same chemical property but different physical
properties are known as Allotropes and this property is known as Allotropy.
Allotropes of Carbon:
a. Diamond
 Hardest
 Bad conductor of heat & electricity
 High melting point
 High density
b. Graphite
 Good conductor of heat and electricity
 Insoluble in ordinary solvent.
c. Charcoal : obtained from wood, sugar, animal bones
d. Coke : used for manufacturing water gas, household fuel, manufacturing
It is also used in the extraction of metals such as iron, copper, tin, zinc as it is
an excellent reducing agent.
 Types of Organic Compounds:
1. Saturated Hydrocarbons: containing single bonds (alkanes).
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons: containing atleast 1 double or triple bond (alkenes,
alkynes).The addition of hydrogen to an unsaturated hydrocarbon (e.g. oil) to
obtain a saturated hydrocarbon (e.g. ghee) is called hydrogenation.
2. Haloalkanes (-Cl, -Br, -F, -I)
3. Alcohols (-OH)
4. Aldehydes (-CHO)
5. Ketones (-CO-)
6. Carboxylic acid (-COOH)
7. Ester (-COOR, where R is an alkyl group): formed by carboxylic acid and alcohol
8. Amino acids (-NH2)
9. Nitro group (-NO2)
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 Isomers : the organic compounds having same molecular formula but different
structure are called isomers e.g. structural isomers of propanol (C3H7OH)
Note that when acetylene and pure oxygen are burned, then acetylene burns
completely producing a blue flame with high heat. This oxy-acetylene flame is used
of welding.
 Unsaturated Cyclic hydrocarbon : Benzene C6H6 (aromatic compound)
 Polymerization : the process of formation of big molecule (polymer) by the
combination of a large number of molecules (its monomers).
Polymers are backbone of 4 major industries : plastics, elastomers, fibres and
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Thermoplastic polymers Thermosetting polymers
 These are neither very strong nor very
weak and have no cross-links
between the chains.
 These are cross-linked.1
 They are linear or slightly branched.  These are heavily branched.
 They are capable of softening on
heating and hardening on cooling
 On heating, it undergoes extensive
cross linking between polymer
chains to give a 3D solid and again
become infusible.
 e.g. polythene, polystyrene, poly vinyl
 Bakelite, urea-formaldehyde
resins etc.
 Natural Rubber (elastomer): obtained from latex.
Vulcanisation of rubber: This process consists of heating a mixture of natural
rubber with sulphur at a temperature range between 373K to 415K. After this
process, sulphur forms cross-linked at the reactive sites of double bonds and thus
rubber becomes hard and more flexible.
Synthetic Rubber: is vulcanizable rubber which is capable of getting stretched to
twice its length. When it is released, it re-gains its shape and size.
Saponification: process of making soap by hydrolysis of fats and oils with alkalis.
Polymers Its Monomer Uses
Nylon HOOC-(CH2)4- COOH &
Making sheets, bristles for brushes,
textile industry
CH2=CH- CH2 Manufacturing ropes, toys, fibre and
Polystyrene Benzene-CH= CH2 As insulator, manufacturing of TV
cabinets and radio
CH2=CH-Cl Manufacturing of Raincoats, hand bags,
water pipes
Bakelite Phenol (benzene-OH) &
HCHO formaldehyde
For making of combs of electrical
switches, handles of utensils
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Part I
1 Q) Which of the following is the lightest metal?
(a) Mercury
(b) Silver
(c) Lithium
(d) Lead
2 Q) The most important ore of aluminium is
(a) bauxite
(b) calamine
(c) calcite
(d) galena
3 Q) The element present in the largest amount in rocks and minerals is
(a) carbon
(b) silicon
(c) hydrogen
(d) aluminium
4 Q) An alloy used in making heating elements for electric heating devices is
(a) solder
(b) alloy steel
(c) nichrome
(d) German silver
5 Q) German silver is an alloy of
(a) copper, nickel and silver
(b) silver, copper and aluminium
(c) zinc, copper and nickel
(d) silver, zinc and copper
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6 Q) Match the following : ABCD will correctly match with
A. Aluminium 1 Monazite
B. Uranium 2 Pitchblende
C. Thorium 3 Bauxite
D. Lead 4 Galena
5 Haematite
(a) 5 3 2 4
(b)3 2 4 1
(c) 3 2 1 4
(d)2 3 1 5

7 Q) Diamond is an allotropic form of
(a) silicon
(c) sulphur
8 Q) Air is a/an
(a) compound
(b) element
(c) mixture
(d) electrolyte

9 Q) Which of the following is the best conductor of electricity?
(a) Ordinary water
(b) Sea water
(c) Boiled water
(d) Distilled water
10 Q) Balloons are filled with
(a) helium
(b) oxygen
(c) nitrogen
(d) argon

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11 Q) The charcoal used to decolourise raw sugar is
(a) animal charcoal
(b) sugar charcoal
(c) coconut charcoal
(d) wood charcoal

12 Q) The most abundant metal in the earth’s crust is
(a) zinc
(b) copper
(c) aluminium
(d) iron

13 Q) Production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC/freon) gas which is proposed to be
banned in India, is used in which of the following domestic products ?
(a) Television
(b) Tubelight
(c) Cooking gas
(d) Refrigerator

14 Q) The gas used to extinguish fire, is
(a) neon
(b) nitrogen
(c) carbon dioxide
(d) carbon monoxide

15 Q) In which of the following activities silicon carbide (corundum) is used ?
(a) Making cement and glass
(b) Disinfecting water of ponds
(c) Making casts for statues
(d) Cutting very hard substances

16 Q) The element common to all acids is
(a) carbon
(b) hydrogen
(c) oxygen
(d) sulphur

17 Q) Gobar gas contains mainly
(a) methane
(b) carbon dioxide
(c) butane
(d) carbon monoxide

18 Q) The most malleable metal is
(a) Silver
(b) Gold
(c) Aluminium
(d) Sodium

19 Q) Tetraethyl lead is used as
(a) mosquito repellent
(b) painkiller
(c) fire extinguisher
(d) petrol additive

20 Q) Which of the following is used in beauty parlours for hair setting?
(a) Chlorine
(b) Sulphur
(c) Phosphorus
(d) Silicon

21 Q) Which one among the following is not a periodic property i.e., does not show
any trend on moving from one side to the other in the Periodic Table?
(a) Atomic size
(b) Radioactivity
(c) Valency
(d) Electromagnetically

22 Q) Which one of the following is used as an anti-freezer, which effectively
depresses the freezing point of water in an automobile?.
(a) Ethylene glycol
(b) Propanoic acid
(c) Glutamic acid
(d) Glycolic acid

23 Q) Aqua-regia used by alchemist to separate silver and gold is a mixture of
(a) concentrated HNO, and concentrated H2SO4
(b) concentrated HC1 and concentrated H2SO4
(c) concentrated HN03 and concentrated HCl
(d) dilute HN03 and dilute HCl

24 Q) “Metal used to make wires for safety fuses must have ”
(a) very low resistivity and high melting point
(b) high resistivity and low melting point
(c) low resistivity and low melting point
(d) high resistivity and high melting point

25 Q) Which of the following is not a natural polymer?
(a) Wool
(b) Silk
(c) Cotton
(d) Teflon

26 Q) The ultra pure metal is obtained by
(a) calcination
(b) sublimation
(c) zone refining
(d) None of these

27 Q) Which one among the following polymers is used to make personal armour
such as combat helmets, ballistic face masks, and ballistic vests?
(a) Teflon
(b) PVC
(c) Bakelite
(d) Kevlar

28 Q) Assertion (A) A buffer solution is a mixture of a strong acid and its conjugate base
or a strong base and its conjugate acid.
Reason (R) Buffer solutions keep the pH at a nearly constant value.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

29 Q) Which of the following gases in the atmosphere is/are responsible for acid
I. Oxides of sulphur
II. Oxides of nitrogen
III. Oxides of carbon

Select the correct answer using the codes given below
(a) I and II
(b) I and III
(c) Only II
(d) All of these

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30 Q) Match the Following
List l List II
(Elements) (Ores/Minerals)
A. Copper 1. Corundum, Bauxite
B. Iron 2. Malachite, Azurite
C. Lead 3. Galena, Lanarkite
D. Aluminium 4. Haematite,Limonite
(a) 2 4 3 1
(b) 2 3 4 1
(C) 4 3 1 2
(d) 4 1 3 2

31 Q) Vermicompost is a/an
(a) inorganic fertilizer
(b) toxic substance
(c) organic bio fertilizer
(d) synthetic fertilizer

32 Q) Which one of the following is involved for desalination of sea water?
(a) Simple osmosis
(b) Reverse osmosis
(c) Use of sodium aluminium silicate as zeolite
(d) Use of ion selective electrode

33 Q) Soaps are important cleansing agent and this property is due to their
emulsifying action. How does soap enhance the cleansing action?
(a) It has a strong acidic character which can dissolve the dirt
(b) It rises the temperature of the reaction
(c) It breaks triple bond formed between dirt and cloth
(d) It has capacity to render more prolonged the mixing of oil and water

34 Q) The animal fats undergo ‘auto-oxidation’ under ordinary temperature which
gives the fats a rancid taste and odour. Which one of the following causes the
rancid taste and odour of the fats?
(a) Platinum
(b) Carbon monoxide
(c) Carbon dioxide
(d) Aldehydes

35 Q) “The pungent smell of garlic is due to ”
(a) phosphate compound
(b) nitrate compound
(c) sulphur compound
(d) chlorine compound

36 Q) Which one among the following statement about an atom is not correct?
(a) Atoms always combine to form molecule
(b) Atoms are the basic units from which molecules and ions are formed
(c) Atoms are always neutral in nature
(d) Atoms aggregate in large numbers to form the matter that we can see, feel and
37 Q) “The light emitted by firefly is due to ”
(a) radioactive substance
(b) chemiluminiscence process
(c) a photoelectric process
(d) burning of phosphorus
38 Q) Which one among the following metals is used in fireworks to make a
brilliant white light?
(a) Sodium
(b) Magnesium
(c) Aluminium
(d) Silver
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39 Q) “Consider the following statements.
I. In the titration between weak bases and strong acids, the indicator such
as methyl orange is commonly used.
II. In the titration between a weak acid and a strong base, the indicator
such as phenolphthalein is commonly used. Which of the statements
given above is/are correct?”
(a) Only I
(b) Only II
(c) Both I and II
(d) Neither I nor II
40 Q) Which one among the following polymers is used for making bullet-proof
(a) Polyvinyl chloride
(b) Polystyrene
(c) Polyethylene
(d) Polyamide
41 Q) Which one of the following is the softest?
(a) Sodium
(b) Iron
(c) Aluminium
(d) Copper
42 Q) Ethanol mixed petrol is being sold in various states wef January 1, 2003. The
percentage of ethanol in petrol is
(a) 10%
(b) 7%
(c) 6%
(d) 5%
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43 Q) A polymer which is used for making ropes and carpet fibres is
(a) polyacetylene
(b) polypropylene
(c) polyacrylonitrile
(d) PVC
44 Q) Which one among the following salts causes hardness to the water?
(a) Calcium bicarbonate
(b) Calcium carbonate
(c) Sodium sulphate
(d) Potassium chloride
45 Q) Which one among the following is the natural polymer?
(a) Nylon
(b) Teflon
(c) PVC
(d) Cellulose
46 Q) Vinegar is used as a condiment, and in the pickling of vegetables and other
foods. What is the constituent of vinegar?
(a)Butanoic acid
(b) Methanoic acid
(c) Ethanoic acid
(d) Hexanoic acid
47 Q) Which of the following pesticide is applied to the foundation of buildings to
prevent termites?
(a) Aldrin
(c) Atrazine
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48 Q) “Consider the following substances.
I. Cadmium
II. Boron
III. Nickel
Which of the substances given above is/are used as controlling rod in nuclear
reactor? ”
(a) All of these
(b) I and II
(c) II and III
(d) Only II
49 Q) Liquid sodium is used for the heat transfer medium in some of nuclear
reactor because
(a) sodium has high rate of vapourisation
(b) sodium has low density and high viscosity
(c) sodium has high specific heat than the most liquid metals
(d) All of the above
50 Q) Which one of the following petroleum refinery products has the lowest
boiling point?
(a) Kerosene
(b) Gasoline
(c) Diesel
(d) Lubricating oil
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Ans 1). C Ans 26) C
Ans 2) A Ans 27) D
Ans 3) B Ans 28) D
Ans 4) C Ans 29) A
Ans 5) C Ans 30) A
Ans 6) C Ans 31) C
Ans 7) B Ans 32) B
Ans 8) C Ans 33) D
Ans 9) B Ans 34) D
Ans 10) A Ans 35) C
Ans 11) D Ans 36) D
Ans 12) C Ans 37) D
Ans 13) D Ans 38) B
Ans 14) C Ans 39) C
Ans 15) D Ans 40) C
Ans 16) B Ans 41) A
Ans 17) A Ans 42) D
Ans 18) B Ans 43) B
Ans 19) D Ans 44) A
Ans 20) B Ans 45) D
Ans 21) B Ans 46) C
Ans 22) A Ans 47) A
Ans 23) C Ans 48) B
Ans 24) B Ans 49) C
Ans 25) D Ans 50) B
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51 Q) Which one of the following is used as a mordant in dyeing and tanning
(a) Magnesium oxide
(b) Magnesium chloride
(c) Magnesium sulphate
(d) Magnesium carbonate
52 Q) “The gas used in a refrigerator is ”
(a)cooled down on flowing
(b)heated up on flowing
(c)cooled down when compressed
(d)cooled down when expanded
53 Q) Consider the following statements. Loss of beta- particle is equivalent to
I. increase in one proton only.
II. decrease in one neutron only.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?”
(a) Only I
(b) Only II
(c)Both I and II
(d) Neither I nor II
54 Q) Which one of the following oxides is the most abundant in Earth crust?
(a) Na2O
(b) CaO
(c) MgO
(d) SiO2
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55 Q) The flavour of apple is mainly due to which one of the following?
(a) Formalin
(b) Ethanol
(c) Benzene
(d) Benzaldehyde
56 Q) Which one among the following statements is correct?
(a) All bases are alkalis
(b) None of the basis is alkali
(c) There are no more bases except the alkalis
(d) All alkalis are bases but all bases are not alkalis
57Q) KO2 (Potassium superoxide) is used in oxygen cylinders in space and
submarines because it
(a) eliminates moisture
(b) absorbs C02
(c) produces ozone
(d) produces C02
58 Q) Scuba divers are at high risk due to high concentration of dissolved gases
while breathing air at high pressure under water. The tanks used by Scuba divers
are filled with
(a) air diluted with helium
(b) 02
(c) N2
(d) a mixture of nitrogen and helium
59 Q) “Which one of the following is correct? Setting of plaster of Paris is ”
(a) dehydration
(b) oxidation with atmospheric oxygen
(c) hydration leading to another hydrate
(d) combination with atmospheric carbon dioxide
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60 Q)
Assertion (A) On mixing with water, plaster of Paris hardens.
Reason (R) By combining with water, plaster of Paris is converted into gypsum.
(a)Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b)Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c)A is true but R is false
(d)A is false but R is true
61 Q) “The bleaching action of chlorine occurs in the presence of ”
(a) moisture
(b) sunlight
(c) pure oxygen
(d) pure sulphur dioxide
62 Q) Which one among the following polymers is re-synthesised from the
naturally occurring polymer?
(a) Kevlar
(b) Teflon
(c) Rayon
(d) Cellulose
63 Q) Food wrapped in newspaper is likely to get contaminated with
(a) aluminium
(b) lead
(c) iron
(d) magnesium
64 Q) Which one of the following has been producing/can produce light by a
chemical change?
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(a) Electric bulb
(b) Moon
(c) Sun
(d) Lightning and thunder
65 Q) Which one of the following chemical compounds is responsible for the
stimulation of tear glands by the onion?
(a)A phosphate compound
(b)A nitrate compound
(c)A sulphide compound
(d)A chloride compound
66 Q) “Many communities put salt on their roads after a snowfall, Why? ”
(a)To enhance the freezing and hardening of snow
(b)To control the slipping of vehicles
(c)To keep the melted snow from refreezing
(d)None of the above
67 Q) Assertion (A) All liquids are conductors of Electricity.
Reason (R) Under the condition of low pressure and high voltage, liquids can be
made conducting.”
(a)Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b)Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c)A is true but R is false
(d)A is false but R is true
68 Q) Which one among the following would expand the most on being heated?
(a) Water
(b) Air
(c) Alcohol
(d) Glass

69 Q) “Consider the following statements
I. Glass wool has tensile strength greater than steel,
II. Glass wool is fire powder.
III. Glass wool has high electrical conductivity and absorbs moisture.
IV. Glass wool is used to prepare fire glass.
Which of the statements given above are correct?”
(a)I, II, III and IV
(b) I, II and III
(c) I, II and IV
(d) III and IV
70 Q) Why hard water does not give lather with soap?
(a) Hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions, which form precipitate with
(b) Hard water contains sulphate and chloride ions, which form precipitate
(c) pH of hard water is high
(d) pH of hard water is less
71 Q) The most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust is
(a) Si
(b) Fe
(c) Al
(d) Cu
72 Q) If four balloons A, B, C and D are filled with hydrogen, oxygen, helium and
nitrogen gases respectively and left in air, which balloon reaches to the highest
distance from the Earth?.
(a) Balloon A
(b) Balloon B
(c) Balloon C
(d) Balloon D
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73 Q) Which one of the following is used in the preparation of antiseptic solution?
(a)Potassium nitrate
(c)Iodine chloride
(d)Potassium chloride
74 Q) Contact lenses are made from
(a) polyvinyl chloride
(b) polystyrene
(c) Teflon
(d) lucite
75 Q) Which one among the following substances evolved heat when dissolved in
(a) Glucose
(b) Fructose
(c) Quick lime
(d) Salt peter
76 Q) The biological specimens in laboratory are preserved in the glass containing
formalin. What is the “formalin”?
(a)An aqueous solution of H2S04
(b)An aqueous solution of HNOa
(c)An aqueous solution of formaldehyde
(d)Concentrated solution of HNOa
77 Q) “Consider the following statements
I. Photochromatic lenses darken on exposure to ultraviolet light.
II. Photochromatic properties is due to embedded microcrystalls of silver
chloride in the glass.
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Which of the statements given above is/are correct?.”
(a)Only I
(b) Only II
(c)Both I and II
(d) Neither I nor II
78 Q) Match the Following
List 1 (Names) List II (Compounds)
A. Baking soda 1. Sodium nitrate
B. Washing soda 2. Calcium hydroxide
C. Chile saltpeter 3. Sodium carbonate
D. Slack lime 4. Sodium bicarbonate
(a) 2 4 3 1
(b) 2 3 4 1
(c) 4 3 1 2
(d) 4 1 3 2
79 Q) Match the Following
List 1 (Polymers) List II (Monomers)
A. Nylon-6 1. para-phenylenediamine + Terephthaloyl chloride
B. Kevlar 2. Caprolactum
C. Nylon-66 3. Hexamethylene diamine + Adipic acid
D. Bakelite 4. Phenol + Formaldehyde
(a) 2 1 3 4
(b) 2 3 4 1
(c) 3 4 2 1
(d) 3 1 2 4
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80 Q) The rusting of iron nail
(a) decreases it weight
(b) increases its weight
(c) does not affect weight but iron is oxidised
(d) does not affect weight but iron is reduced
81 Q) Which one of the following is the hardest alkali metal?
(a) Li
(b) K
(c) Na
(d) Cs
82 Q) “What is the role of positive catalyst in a chemical reaction? ”
(a) It increases the rate of reaction
(b) It decreases the rate of reaction
(c) It increases the yield of the products
(d) It provides better purity of the products
83 Q) The pH of fresh groundwater slightly decreases upon exposure to air because
(a) carbon dioxide from air is dissolved in the water
(b) oxygen from air is dissolved in the water
(c) the dissolved carbon dioxide of the groundwater escapes into air
(d) the dissolved oxygen of the groundwater escapes into air
84 Q) What is the purpose of adding baking soda to dough?.
(a)To generate moisture
(b)To give a good flavour
(c)To give a good colour
(d)To generate carbon dioxide
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85 Q) Which one among the following agents is added to domestic LPG cylinder to
help in the detection of gas leakage?
(a) Methano
(c) Thioethanol
86 Q) To meet its rapidly growing energy demand, some opine that India should
pursue research and development on thorium as the future fuel of nuclear energy.
In this context, what advantage does thorium hold over uranium?
1. Thorium is far more abudant in nature than uranium
2. On the basis of per unit mass of mined mineral, thorium can generate more
energy compared to natural uranium.
3. Thorium produces less harmful waste compared to uranium.
Which of the statement (s) given above is/are correct?”
(a) Only 1
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3
87 Q) Which one among the following will you put into pure water in order to pass
electric current through it?
(a) Kerosene
(b) Mustard oil
(c) Sugar
(d) Lemon juice
88 Q) Which one of the following is the metallurgical operation in which a metal is
obtained in a fused state?
(a) Calcination
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(c) Froth floatation
89 Q) “Carbonated beverages such as soft drinks and soda water contains mainly ”
(a) carbon dioxide
(b) calcium carbonate
(c) calcium hydroxide
(d) potassium carbonate
90 Q) Assertion (A) Nitric acid is used in the production of fertilizers.
Reason (R) Sulphuric acid is used in the production of explosive.”
(a)Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b)Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c)A is true but R is false
(d)A is false but R is true
91 Q) Which one among the following when dissolved in water give hissing sound?
(a) Limestone
(c) Slaked lime
(d)Quick lime
92 Q) “Consider the following substances I. Heavy Water II. Graphite
Which of the substances given above is/are used as a moderator in a nuclear
reactor? ”
(a) Only I
(b) Only II
(c) Both I and II
(d) Neither I nor II
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93 Q) Which of the following pairs of chemical compounds has the potential for
carbon capturing by chemical process to reduce the global warming?
(a)Potassium oxide and sodium oxide
(b)Magnesium oxide and calcium oxide
(c)Magnesium oxide and potassium oxide
(d)Calcium oxide and potassium oxide
94 Q) Assertion (A) The nuclear fusion reaction releases less energy than the fission
Reason (R) The nuclear fusion reaction takes place in the sun and other stars.
(a)Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b)Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c)A is true but R is false
(d)A is false but R is true
95 Q) “Consider the following gases
I. Water vapour
II. Nitrous oxide
IV. Methane
Which of the gases given above are “Green House Gases (GHGs)”? ”
(a) All of these
(b) I, II and III
(c) II and III
(d) II and IV
96 Q) Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a chemical compound io attract
shared electrons towards itself where as Electron Gain Enthalpy is the amount of
energy released when an isolated neutral gaseous atom of the element takes up
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extra electron to form a uni-negative gaseous ions, also called electron affinity. tell
the element with highest electronegavity and the one with highest electron
(a) Fluorine, Chlorine
(b) Chlorine, fluorine
(c) Iodine, Fluorine
(d) Fluorine, fluorine
97 Q) Match the Following
List 1 List II
(Elements) (Colour on flame)
A. Barium 1. Yellow
B. Sodium 2. Greenish
C. Silver 3. Turns black
D. Lead Codes 4. Apple green
(a) 2 4 3 1
(b) 2 3 4 1
(c) 4 3 1 2
(d) 4 1 3 2
98 Q) Making of chappathi is based on
(a) Graham’s law
(b) Henry’s law
(c) Charles’ law
(d) Boyle’s law
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99 Q) The hair dye available in the market contains two bottles, one containing dye
and other containing hydrogen peroxide. The bottles are mixed before applying the
dye. The function of hydrogen peroxide is
(a) to dilute the dye
(b) to oxidise the dye to give desired colour
(c) to reduce the dye to give desired colour
(d) to acidify the dye solution
100 Q) From which one among the following water source, the water is likely to be
contaminated with fluorine?
(a) Ground water
(b) Rain water
(c) River water
(d) Pond water


Ans 51) C Ans 76) C
Ans 52) D Ans 77) C
Ans 53) C Ans 78) C
Ans 54) D Ans 79) A
Ans 55) B Ans 80) B
Ans 56) D Ans 81) A
Ans 57) B Ans 82) A
Ans 58) A Ans 83) A
Ans 59) D Ans 84) D
Ans 60) A Ans 85) C
Ans 61) A Ans 86) D
Ans 62) C Ans 87) D
Ans 63) B Ans 88) D
Ans 64) C Ans 89) A
Ans 65) C Ans 90) B
Ans 66) C Ans 91) D
Ans 67) D Ans 92) C
Ans 68) B Ans 93) B
Ans 69) C Ans 94) D
Ans 70) A Ans 95) A
Ans 71) C Ans 96) A
Ans 72) B Ans 97) D
Ans 73) B Ans 98) C
Ans 74) D Ans 99) B
Ans 75) C Ans 100) C

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