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Darfur Genocide – World History – Free PDF Download

DARFUR GENOCIDE

  • The Darfur genocide refers to the systematic killing of Darfuri men, women, and children which occurred during the ongoing conflict in Western Sudan.
  • It has become known as the first genocide of the 21st century. The genocide, which is being carried out against the Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa tribes, has led the International Criminal Court (ICC) to indict several people for crimes against humanity, rape, forced transfer and torture.
  • According to Eric Reeves, more than one million children have been “killed, raped, wounded, displaced, traumatized.

DARFUR GENOCIDE

  • The crisis and ongoing conflict in Sudan’s Western Darfur Region have developed from several separate events.
  • The first is a civil war that occurred between the Khartoum national governments and two rebel groups in Darfur: the Justice and Equality Movement and the Sudan Liberation Army.
  • The rebel groups were initially formed in February 2003 due to Darfur’s “political and economic marginalization by Khartoum”.

 DARFUR GENOCIDE

  • A second factor is a civil war that has occurred between the Christians, the animist Black southerners, and the Arab dominated government since Sudan’s independence from the United Kingdom in 1956.
  • The ethnic conflict in Darfur has been persistent. Darfur is home to six million people and several dozen tribes.
  • In 2013 the United Nations (UN) estimated that up to 300,000 people had been killed. By 2015, it was estimated that the death toll stood between 100,000 and 400,000.

GENOCIDE

  • The BBC first reported on the issue of ethnic cleansing in November 2003, and earlier that year in March.
  • In April 2004, Human Rights Watch (HRW) released Darfur Destroyed: Ethnic Cleansing by Government and Militia Forces in Western Sudan, a 77-page report compiled by HRW following 25 days spent in the region.
  • The use of rape as a tool of genocide has been noted. This crime has been carried out by Sudanese government forces and the Janjaweed (“evil men on horseback”) paramilitary groups.

GENOCIDE

  • The settings in which these attacks occurred:
  • The Janjaweed forces surrounded the village and then attacked girls and women who left the village to gather firewood or water;
  • The Janjaweed forces either went house to house, killing the boys and men while raping the girls and women or rounded up everyone, bringing them to a central location, where the forces then killed the boys and men then raped the girls and women
  • The Janjaweed forces went to nearby villages or towns, internally displaced person (IDP) camps, or across the border into Chad to rape women and children.

ACTIONS

  • The United Nations issued a hybrid United Nations-African Union mission (UNAMID) to maintain peace in Darfur. It was established on 31 July 2007 with the adoption of Security Council resolution 1769.
  • The Mission has 35 deployment locations throughout the five Darfur states.The African Union (AU) and the United Nations (UN) produced a framework document for intensive diplomatic and political peacekeeping efforts.
  • The peacekeeping mission is confronted with several challenges from security to logistical constraints. The troops that have been deployed operate in unforgiving, complex and often a hostile political environment. Also, the missions is faced with many shortages in equipment, infrastructure, transportation and aviation assets.

 

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