FALL OF U.S.S.R. | By Dr. Mahipal Singh Rathore | Free PDF Download

What was USSR?

The ‘Union of Soviet Socialist Republics’ Russian revolution of 1917 Formally established in 1922

• 15 Sub national soviets

• Centralized economy and planning

• One party rule

CAUSES of DISINTEGRATION SPACE RACE

Billions spent to compete with USA Firsts-

• Satellite

• Animal in space

• Cosmonaut

• Woman in space ARMS RACE

• Nuclear arsenal largest in world

• Billions spent on huge army

• Mutually Assured Destruction

COLD WAR

• To increase communist influence, support to Cuba, North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, China and many other communist nations/parties

• Material and technology spent on these nations cost a lot of money. AFGHAN WAR • 1979-1989

• 15000 soldiers killed

• 50000+ wounded

• Draining vital resources

DECLINE IN ECONOMY

• Tight state control over economy and absence of free market economy was draining the USSR’s economic strength.

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  • The USSR had become a totalitarian state under Stalin
  • Non Russian ethnic people did not assimilate as had hoped for.

EVENTS MIKHAIL GORBACHEV

  • General secretary of the Communist party of soviet union in 1985
  • To make socialism more efficient and bring economy out of stagnation he launched two policies- Glasnost and perestroika GLASNOST
  • Openness
  • ’’Freedom of speech’’
  • Easing of media censorship.
  • Earlier records declassified PERESTROIKA
  • ‘’RESTRUCTURING’’ ‘’REFORMATION’’
  • Soviet political and economic structure
  • Elections, foreign investment, privately owned businesses EASTERN EUROPE Relaxed policies lead to demands of sovereignty and independence in Eastern and central Europe and also in the 15 sub national soviets. 1989 – Year of Revolutions
  • From summer of 1989 till 1991 revolutions in Poland Hungary East Germany Czechoslovakia Bulgaria Romania Yugoslavia
  • Nationalist movements to gain independence from USSR influence and communist puppet governments.
  • Gorbachev did not send army to suppress any of the protests or movements.
  • Berlin wall fell in November of 1989
  • December 1989 – Bush Sr. announces end of cold war

DOMINO EFFECT

  • Starting from 1987 these soviets declared sovereignty or independence.
  • Estonia
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania Were the first ones
  • Throughout 1990 and 1991 one by one all the 15 sub national soviets became independent.

    AUGUST COUP

  •  On 19 Aug 1991, a group of senior party leaders attempted a coup d’état by placing Gorbachev under House arrest and demanding the restoration of USSR
  • Failed as the people in cities rose against it and the majority of Red Army refused to support the coup leaders.

    Boris Yelstin 

  • Leader of Moscow unit of Communist party Advocated for independent Russia Leader of public in the Coup Became the first elected President of Russia in July 1991.

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After the Failed Coup 

  • Break up process accelerated .
  • 8 December 1991- the presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords, which dissolved the USSR and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place.
  • Alma ata Declaration on 21 December
  • Gorbachev resigns as President of USSR on 25 Dec.
  • Supreme soviet dissolves the Union on 26 Dec AFTERMATH
  • Severe economic contraction and catastrophic fall in living standards in post-Soviet states
  • Increase in poverty, crime, corruption, unemployment, disease and income inequality,
  • Decrease in life expectancy, adult literacy, and income

COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES [CIS] 

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  • 8 DEC- Belavezha accords
  • 21 DEC- Alma ata protocol
  • Most (9+2) of the former soviet republics joined to form the CIS on 21 December 1991 on the signing of Alma Ata Protocol
  • Baltic states, Georgia are not part of it.

 

 

 

 

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