Geography CA Last One Year Set – 1 UPSC 2020 – Free PDF Download


Q) Consider the following statements about Ujh and Basantar bridges.  

A). Ujh & Basantar are tributaries of Ravi river

B). BRO works under the administrative control of ministry of road transport

Options :

  1. Both A & B are correct
  2. Only A is correct
  3. Only B is correct
  4. Neither of the two is correct

Ujh and Basantar Bridge :-

  • Shri Rajnath Singh inaugurated the 1 kilometre long Ujh bridge in Kathua district & 617.40 Metre long Basantar bridge in Samba district of Jammu & Kashmir
  • The bridges have been built under Project Sampark, by Border Roads Organisation (BRO)
  • The 1 Km long ‘Ujh bridge in Kathua, over Ujh river is the longest bridge constructed by BRO.
  • The 617 m Basantar bridge in Samba has been constructed over Basantar river.
  • These bridges will provide smooth connectivity and are vital for the army for deployment on border areas
  • The BRO functions under ‘Ministry of Defense’

River Unearthed :-

  • Paleochannel report by an expert committee headed by Prof. K.S. Valdiya, eminent Geologist.
  • The report is an assertion of the assumption that River Saraswati originated from Adibadri in Himalaya to culminate in the Arabian Sea through the Runn of
  • This river was once upon a time the lifeline of the north- western states of India and a vibrant series of  civilizations from Mahabharat period to Harappa had  flourished on the banks of this river.
  • Scientists excavate ‘ancient river’ in Uttar Pradesh
  • The paleochannel linked the Ganga and the Yamuna near Prayagraj, These paleochannels reveal the course  of rivers that have ceased to exist.

  • The “ancient buried river” is around 4 km wide, 45 km long and consisted of a 15-metre-thick layer buried under soil.
  • The newly discovered river was a “buried paleochannel that joins the Yamuna river at Durgapur village, about 26 km south of the current Ganga-Yamuna confluence at Prayagraj.
  • Palaeochannels
    • A palaeochannel is a remnant of an inactive river or stream channel that has been filled or buried by younger sediment.
    • It occurs when rivers change their course either due to the movement of tectonic plates or severe floods and cut new ones.
    • Some of the palaeochannels lie buried under younger sediments. Palaeochannels are commonly occurring landforms in alluvial landscapes, and have an economic significance because of their use in  the exploration for freshwater resources, artificial recharge and storage of groundwater.
    • Additionally, they are of importance in the location and assessment of mineral deposits such as uraniferous ores, gold, silver and other placer deposits hosted in them.

Place in news – Marwah Island :-

  • The oldest known natural pearl in the world has been discovered by Abu Dhabi archaeologists working at a Neolithic site on Marawah Island, just o” the coast of Abu Dhabi.
  • Marawah is a low-lying island o” the coast of Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the United Arab Emirates. The island is a key center of archaeology. Archeologists have identified various sites dating from the Neolithic to the Islamic Period (12-13 AD).
  • Dubbed the ‘Abu Dhabi Pearl’, it was found in layers that have been radiocarbon dated to 5,800-5,600 BCE, during the Neolithic period.
  • The discovery is a proof that pearls and oysters were being used in the UAE nearly 8,000 years ago, and represents the earliest known evidence for pearling yet discovered anywhere in the world.

Q) What are Vartak, Arunank, Brahmank and Udayak?

A). Solar Missions of International solar alliance

B). Projects of BRO in Arunachal Pradesh

C). Rover components for Gaganyaan mission of ISRO

D). Farthest points from earth in four directions where atmosphere ends

  • Defence Minister Rajnath Singh inaugurated the Sisseri River Bridge located at lower Dibang Valley in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The 200m long bridge provides connectivity between Dibang Valley and Siang.
  • The Sisseri River bridge provides connectivity to Tinsukia via Dhola-Sadia bridge.
  • long-pending demand of the people of Arunachal Pradesh as it would cut down the travel time from Pasighat to Roing by about five hours.
  • The bridge was constructed by ‘Project Brahmank’ of Border Roads Organisation (BRO).
  • There are four projects of BRO in Arunachal Pradesh namely Vartak, Arunank, Brahmank, and Udayak
  • This bridge is strategically important from the military viewpoint and will be a part of Trans Arunachal
  • The Trans-Arunachal Highway was ₹10,000-crore two-lane highway project that aimed to connect Tawang in the west to Kanubari in the east of Arunachal Pradesh. It was conceived in 2008.

  • In the Atlantic and Northeast Pacific, the term “hurricane” is used. The same type of disturbance in the Northwest Pacific is called a “typhoon” and “cyclones” in the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean
  • The main Japanese island of Honshu was hit by Typhoon Hagibis on 12th October 2019.
  • Typhoon Hagibis could be the strongest storm to hit Japan since 1958.
  • Typhoon Hagibis, which means “speed” in the Philippine language, had packing winds of 180 km per hour near its centre.
  • The storm brought record-breaking rainfall to many areas, resulting in floods and landslides in the country.
  • Typhoon Ida, known as the “Kanogawa Typhoon” in Japanese, killed more than 1,000 people in September Ida had winds of 190 kmph when it hit the country.

Formation of a Tropical Cyclone :-

  • To form a cyclone, warm, moist air over the ocean rises upward from near the surface.
  • As this air moves up and away from the ocean surface, it leaves is less air near the surface.
  • So basically as the warm air rises, it causes an area of lower air pressure below.
  • Air from surrounding areas with higher air pressure pushes in to the low pressure area.
  • Then this new “cool” air becomes warm and moist and rises, too. And the cycle continues
  • As the warmed, moist air rises and cools the water in the air forms clouds. The whole system of clouds and wind spins and grows, fed by the ocean’s heat and water evaporating from the ocean surface.
  • As the storm system rotates faster and faster, an eye forms in the centre.
  • It is very calm and clear in the eye, with very low air pressure. Higher pressure air from above flows down into the eye
  • Tropical cyclones usually weaken when after they hit land (landfall), because they are no longer being fed by the energy from the warm ocean waters.

J&K’s Chenani-Nashri Tunnel (Patnitop Tunnel) renamed after Shyama Prasad Mukherjee :-

  • Located on NH 44 in Jammu & Kashmir
  • It is country’s longest road tunnel that links Kashmir valley with Jammu by an all-weather route.
  • The 9.2 km long ‘Chenani Nashri Tunnel’ was built at the cost of Rs 2,500 crore. The tunnel, bypassing snow-bound upper reaches, reduces the journey time by two hours and provide a safe, all- weather route to  commuters travelling from Jammu and Udhampur to Ramban, Banihal and Srinagar.

Feni river MoU between India, Bangladesh :-

  • The Feni river forms part of the India-Bangladesh border, originates in the South Tripura district, passes through Sabroom town on the Indian side, and meets the Bay of Bengal after it flows into Bangladesh.
  • The Union Cabinet approved a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between India and Bangladesh on the withdrawal of 1.82 cusecs (cubic feet per second) of water from the Feni river by India for a drinking  water supply scheme for Sabroom town in Tripura.
  • In August 2019, India and Bangladesh held a water secretary-level meeting of the Joint Rivers Commission (JRC) in Dhaka, where it was agreed to collect data and prepare water-sharing agreements for seven  rivers — Manu, Muhuri, Khowai, Gumti, Dharla, Dudhkumar, and Feni.
  • The MoU stands to benefit Sabroom town on the southern tip of Tripura.
  • The present supply of drinking water to Sabroom town is inadequate. The groundwater in this region has high iron content.
  • In Tripura, a 150-metre long, 4-lane bridge across the Feni is being built between India and Bangladesh, where the river forms the border between the two countries.
  • It is expected to be completed by March 2020 at an estimated expenditure of Rs 73 crore.
  • Once ready, it would connect Tripura with Chittagong port in Bangladesh, which is only 70 km away from the Indo-Bangla border.

‘Geochemical Baseline Atlas of India’ :-

  • Recently, CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) released the first ‘Geochemical Baseline Atlas of India’ for environmental management.
  • The atlas aims to document the concentration and distribution of the chemical elements in the soils of India.
  • It consists of 44 maps of metals, oxides, and elements present in top and bottom soils across India.
  • Human activities and natural processes are continuously modifying the chemical composition of our
  • Hence, it will help to assess the chemical compositional changes on the Earth’s surface. It will help the country to assess the presence of toxic chemicals in soil and how it varies from place to place.
  • It also helps in identifying how soil pollution is contributing to groundwater contamination Further, the map will also support in choosing the right soil that’s rich in certain micronutrient elements required for  each plant growth.
  • The geochemical data presented in these maps will be a part of the global map to be prepared by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGC).’
  • IUGC It is a non-governmental scientific organization founded in 1961 which promotes and encourages the study of geological problems, The Union consists of 121 members nations. India is a member.

Place in News – Dallol, Danakil Depression :-

  • The Danakil Depression in Ethiopia is at the northern end of the Great Rift Valley and separated by live volcanoes from the Red Sea.
  • It is one of the world’s hottest places, as well as one of its lowest, at 100 metres below sea level.
  • It was formed by the evaporation of an inland water body and no stream flow out from its extreme
  • It is covered with more than 10 lakh tonnes of salt.
  • Microbes are known to survive almost anywhere. Scientists now believe that this place is an exception.
  • A new study says that active and naturally occurring life cannot be sustained and even it is daunting for extremophile microbes which can adapt to
  • It identifies two barriers that makes adaptation highly difficult such as i. Magnesium-dominated brines that cause cells to break down and ii. Environment having simultaneously very low pH and high salt.




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