Geography of Jammu & Kashmir- Lecture 2 – Important Static GK for KAS JKPSC JKSSC JKSSB Exams

  • Rajtarangani (River of Kings) by Kalhana , presents the Narration of Kashmir History from Ancient times to Middle of 12th Century AD.
  • According to stein , The original name of this region is Kashmira.
  • The names recorded by Ptolemy are Kaspira or Kaspiria .
  • Humboldt , stated that the primeval name of Kashmir was “Casyapmar” .
  • The Chinese Scholar , Hiouen Thsang called it kiashimilo.
  • Kashmir Valley is a fertile plain embedded among high mountain ranges .
  • Kashmir is a mix of two types of landforms –  lowlands , enclosed by highlands.
  • Through the lowlands flows the Jehlum (Veth) , in its middle.
  • The highland component comprises the off shoots of the Great Himalaya , forming the eastern and the Northern Walls.
  • The southern and the Western ramparts are formed by Pirpanjal ranges.
  • There are also a no. of transverse valleys , big and small , that open into main longitudinal valley .(Side Valleys)


Break up of the area of Kashmir Valley ,according to its Physiographic divisions :

  • Mountain Girdle.
  • Sloping Karewas.
  • Karewas Tablelands.
  • Veth Lowland.


The mountain Girdle

The Mountain Girdle of kashmir can be divided into two parts :

  • A ) South and west (Pirpanjal range).
  • B) East and North (The Great Himalayas, which includes both The Eastern Range and the Northern Range)

Pirpanjal Range

  • It lies in the Middle Himalayas (or lesser Himalayas).
  • This is the only high Hiamalyan Range of jammu and Kashmir seen from the North Indian Plain.
  • In the south-east to north-west part of the Range the first pass is the Pirpanjal pass which links Shopiyan (Kashmir) with  Poonch (jammu).
  • Tatakuti peak also lies in this range.
  • The valley facing slopes of the Pirpanjal fall gradually giving rise to several conspicuous steps .
  • ™Preceeding from the Srinagar in the valley floor upwards Tangmarg , denotes the first step
  • Gulmarg denotes the second step .(meadow of flowers).
  • Khilanmarg marks the 3rd step of trhe sample slope.
  • The ascent from Khilanmarg  to summit takes place over rock and snow .
  • The space between these steps has a thick forest cover.

The Great Himalaya

  • The Eastern Range :
  • In the Eastern range of The Great Himalaya is present the Kolohoi  massif , forming the northern – eastern corner of kashmir , and has a maximum width of 60 kms.
  • In it lies Mt.Kolahoi  (gwashibror).
  • To the east of kolahoi , is the Amarnath peak.
  • Side Valleys found in this region are :
  • The Lidder valley :
  • The Lidder Valley extends from Anantnag to Pahalgam.
  • Lidder stream consists of two branches , the east and the west.
  • The east Lidder has its source in the tarn of sheshnag.

The West lidder originates from the Kolohoi glacier.

At Pahalgam , the valley is divided into two defiles , one is stretched towards north west and points towards the sindh valley , the other towards North East ,leading upto Shesh nag and the Amarnath cave.

Sindh Valley

  • It extends from Ganderbal to zojilla pass covering a distance of about 100 kms.
  • River Sindh runs through the entire length of Ganderbal District in Kashmir, originating from the foothills of Amarnath Cave.
  • The stream is called Amravati at its origin near holy cave and at Sangam the Panchtarni waters join it.
  • The drive to Sonamarg is through the Sindh Valley.
  • At Kangan , the Sindh is joined by Wangat stream which drains the Mt Harmukh ridge
  • Both the side valleys are known for their scenic beauty with Pahalgam and Sonamarg as tpourist destinations.

Northern range

  • It runs from Zojila to Lolab valley in the north-eat , north-west direction .
  • Harmukh Massif is present in this range.
  • In this range , is present another side valley called Lolab Valley.
  • The highlands , here are marked by the absence of  glaciers .
  • It is drained by the Lolab (or Manchar)stream .
  • There is a deep cave in the mountain range above kalaroos, the rock formation of which are said to contain copper ore
  • In kupwara district , grey and light brown colour marble is extracted at Zirhama , Oura , Trehgam , drugmulla

Veth lowland

  • This is a flood – plain carved out by Veth and its tributaries.
  • floodplain is the flat area around a river that is covered in times of flood.
  • The Veth Lowland is of width ranging between 3 to 40 kms .

It comprises water bodies , wetlands ,  cropland .

  • Water Bodies constitute : Stream courses , lakes and Canals .
  • Nambals or wetlands get water filled in spring and summer which renders these swampy.
  • The total area under water bodies , wetlands , lakelets sums upto 250 sqkm.
  • The remaining area of veth lowland is formed of recent alluvium which gets renewed due to reccurent floods.

This constitutes the main cropland of kashmir.


  • Karewas are lacustrine deposits in the Valley of Kashmir.
  • Karewa uplands ,called Wudars in Kashmiri , composed of ancient alluvium , are distinguishable in two types .
  • The sloping karewas or Karewa foothills and Upper Karewas also called flat topped Karewas pr Karewa tablelands.
  • Karewa foothills are situated on the periphery of  valley along pirpanjal range.
  • Karewa tablelands are largely situated in the middle  of the valley as isolated blocks.
  • The Karewa tract between Handwara and Kupwara , because of paucity of water , is reffered to as Kandi belt.
  • The Karewa tablelands stand at a height of 60 m from the Veth Lowland.(Martand , Khirram , tral pampore,kulgam etc)

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