Geography of Jammu & Kashmir- Lecture 3 (Kashmir Drainage) – Static GK KAS JKPSC JKSSC JKSSB Exams

Kashmir valley (Drainage)

1.The main drainage artery of kashmir : Jhelum.

2.Source : Spring of verinag (south kashmir).

3.Jhelum is locally known as Vyeth.

4.Sanskrit : Vitasta.

5.Ancient Greeks : Hidaspes .

6.Ptolemy : Bidaspes

7.Al-Beruni in Kitab Ul Hind : Jhelum

8 . Persian : Behat.

9 . When is leaves kashmir at Baramulla :Koshur Darya.

The tributaries of Jehlum can be grouped into : Himalayan tribuatries and the pirpanjal Tributaries

Himalayan Tributaries

1.Sandren .

2.Bringi .

3.Arpath .

4.Lidder .

5.Arpal .

6.Sindh .




  • It has its source in the tarn of Sarbal , below the kaukut Peak .
  • It is a perennial stream .
  • Sothern most of the Himalayan Tributaries.


The Brengi

  • The Brengi receives waters of Ahlan , Razaparyun , and Nowbugh at village vailu to swell as Brengi .

Arpath (Kol)

  • It rises from the Panchaltan and drains the Kuthar area.
  • The Arpath joins Brengi at Mir Danter and the combined stream unites with the sandren at Hainz Danter near khanabal .

The lidder

  • Formed by the confluence of two streams , East Lidder(Sheshnag) and West Lidder(Kolohoi glacier).
  • It enters Anantnag tehsil at seer kanelgund , and joins Veth at village Gur.

Arpal (kol)

  • Passes through the Arpal Village of Tral.
  • Meets Jhelum at Chraligund Village Awantipora.

The Harwan

  • Also known as Marsar Nallah.
  • The stream drains the famous dachhigam national Park .
  • Two off shoot stream separate from each other at the mouth of dachigam valley.
  • One empties itself in the Harwan reservior.
  • Other merges into the Dal Lake near telbal village.
  • The Marsar Stream leaves the Dal and assumes the name of “Tsunt-kol” (apple cannal) , and joins jehlum at Gowkadal.

The Sindh

  • Rises near the Amarnath cave.
  • Merges with Jehlum at Shadipora , Srinagar.

The Erin

  • Source : Tarn of Sarbal .
  • Enters Wular lake at Nadihal.

The madhumati

• Rises from the high altitude lakes (The Shalinisar and the Lolgulsar) , on the North –
Western slopes of the Harmukh.
• Debouches into Wular , near bandipore.

The Pohru

• The streams of lolab and kahmil join together
at kupwara to give rise to pohru stream.
• Major tribuatry of veth in outfall channel.
• North western tributary of Jhelum

The Pirpanjal Tributaries

The Vishau :
Rises from the Kousernag .
It forms the waterfall of Aharbal.
Feeds irrigation many canals in kulgam .

The Rembiar

• The widest tributary of Jhelum.
• Kalhana named it Ramayana Tawi.
• Rises in the snowfields of Pir Panjal range.
• Joins Visahav at Nyaiyun village .
• The combined deep stream (ancient
ghambira) joined veth as Sangam.

The Romshi

• Rises from the peak of Romshi Thong.
• Joins Veth at kakapore.

Dhoodh ganga

• Rises in the snow field of central pir panjal range near Tata Kuti .
• Enters Srinagar at Rawalpora .
• Joined veth at Chattabal.

The Ferozepore

• Between the peaks of Shin Mahinyuv and Nilakant ki gali , the piranjal is drained by this
• Part of the water or Ferozpore and sukhnag enters the wetlands of Hokarsar and Mirgund.
• The combined stream empties into wular.

The Ningle

• Originates from western slope of Apharwat ridge.
• Joins Veth near near Village ningle.

Lakes :

• The Dal Lake :
• Right bank of Veth.
• Located in the Eastern part of Kashmir.
• Boulevard was built by last Dogra Ruler Hari Singh.
• Hazratbal basin , The Bod Dal Basin , The Lakut Dal Basin.

The Anchar Lake :

• Near Soura ,in Srinagar.
• Sindh debouches into it.
• Wicker Willow grows on it mud flats.

• The Wular Lake(Bandipora)
• Largest fresh water lake of India.
• Zaina Lank Island, lies close to the eastern silted shore.
• It was built by King Zain-Ul- Abideen in 14th Century.
• Ancient Name : Mahapadmasaras.
• Present name, derrived from its another Sansrit name : Ullolasaras.(lake with high waves)

Characteristic product of the lake is Singhara or the trapa.
• Large willow plantations on its mudflat.

• Mansbal Lake (Ganderbal).
• Deepest Lake on the Valley floor.

TransHimalayan Ladakh

  • The word ladakh is derrived from a Tibetian Term “La-tags”(a country from passes).
  • Bounded by two mighty mountain systems : Greater Himalayas (South) and Karakoram (North).
  • One of the highest inhabited regions in the world.
  • Indus furrow is walled in the south by the Zanskar range and North by the Ladakh range.

 Valleys in this region :

  • Dras : Himalayan Valley.
  • Suru : b/w Great Himalaya and Zanskar Range.
  • Zanskar Valley : confined to Zanskar Range.
  • Shyok-Nubra Valley : North of Ladakh ranges.
  • Indus enters India at Demchok , Ladakh.
  • The Indus Furrow can be divided into three parts :

a)South Eastern section.

b)Middle Section.

c)North Western Section.

South Eastern

  • Demchok to Upshi.
  • Rupshu Plateau along its eastern edge.
  • Changpa tribe is found here.
  • Kyang (wild ass) , Tibetian Hare , Marmots.
  • Upshi to Khaltse.
  • Leh.
  • Called as Central Ladakh.
  • Yak , dzo (cross b/w yak and cow).
  • Cross breed jersey cows and Merino sheep.
  • Russian Merino sheep farms at Matho, Upshi and Loma.
  • Angora goat farm at Stakna.
  • The common fodder is ole, alfa alfa or Lucerne.

North western Section

  • Dards(Indo Aryan people , who migrated from gilgit).
  • This small group with indo-Aryan features are called Drogpas or Brogpas (Brog – Yul).
  • They abhor cow and it milk.

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