Most Important CA for UPSC Prelims 2021 April-July Set-21 – Free PDF Download



  • Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh, adjoining the National Capital Territory of Delhi and NCR
  • Powers of the Commission: The Commission will be the sole authority with jurisdiction over matters defined in the Bill (such as air quality management).
  • Restricting activities influencing air quality,
  • Investigating and conducting research related to environmental pollution impacting air quality,
  • Preparing codes and guidelines to prevent and control air pollution,
  • Issuing directions on matters including inspections, or regulation which will be binding on the concerned person or authority.


  • India’s and Asia’s first National Dolphin Research Centre (NDRC) is coming up in the premises of Patna University, Bihar.
  • The centre is being set up on banks of Ganges, as per recommendation of a steering committee constituted for implementation of Project Dolphin.
  • As per the committee, Bihar had a natural advantage as it accounted for 50% of the world’s river dolphin population.
  • It was first time proposed in 2011.
  • The Gangetic River dolphin is India’s national aquatic animal (declared in 2009).
  • The species is a reliable indicator of the health of the entire river ecosystem.
  • It is one of four freshwater dolphin species in the world. The other three are:
  • ‘Baiji’ in Yangtze River in China (Functionally extinct since 2006)
  • ‘Boto’ in Amazon River
  • ‘Bhulan’ in Indus River in Pakistan
  • The Gangetic Dolphin is endemic to the Indian sub-continent and has a fairly extensive distribution range.
  • It is found in the Ganga -Brahmaputra – Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of India and Bangladesh, while a few individuals survive in the Karnali, and the Sapta Kosi Rivers in Nepal.
  • It is blind and finds its way and prey in river waters through
  • They are usually found in turbulent waters, where there are enough fish for them to feed on.
  • Echolocation is a technique used by bats, dolphins and other animals to determine the location of objects using reflected sound.
  • They live in a zone where there is little or no current, helping them save energy.
  • If they sense danger, they can dive into deep waters. They swim from the no-current zone to the edges to hunt for fish and
  • Being a mammal, the Ganges River dolphin cannot breathe in water and must surface every 30-120 seconds. Because of the sound it produces when breathing, the animal is popularly referred to as ‘Souns/ Susu/Sushuk/Seho’.
  • Females are larger than males and give birth once every two to three years to only one calf.

Conservation efforts for Gangetic Dolphin

  • National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) implemented Ganges River Dolphin Conservation Action Plan 2010-2020.

Project Dolphin

  • Announced in 2020 has been envisaged along lines of ‘Project Tiger’ to enhance dolphin population.
  • It will be implemented by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
  • It involves conservation of dolphins and aquatic habitat through use of modern technology especially in antipoaching activities.
  • It will engage fishermen and other river/ ocean dependent population and will strive for improving the livelihood of the local communities.


  • World Population Day (11th July), Uttar Pradesh (UP) government announced a new population policy for 2021-2030. This year, the theme of World Population Day 2021 is ‘the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on fertility’.
  • It cites strain on resources due to growing population as the need to have a population control policy in place.
  • UP is India’s most populous state with a population of around 220 million.


  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has released State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021 report.
  • About State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021
    • It was jointly prepared by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the World Health Organization (WHO).
    • This report presents the first global assessment of food insecurity and malnutrition for 2020 and highlights the need for a deeper reflection on how to better address the global food security and nutrition situation.




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