Important international treaties and
• The agreement, aiming to establish international transport and transit corridor
linking central Asia with the Persian Gulf, came into force in 2016.
• It is an agreement between the Governments of Iran, Oman, Turkmenistan
and the Republic of Uzbekistan agreed upon in 2011 in Ashgabat.
• Qatar was also part of agreement initially but subsequently withdrew in 2013
• Kazakhstan and Pakistan joined the grouping in 2016.
• India recently joined the Ashgabat Agreement to establish an international multi modal transport and transit corridor between Central Asia an the Persian Gulf..
. •Comprehensive and Progressive agreement for Transpacific partnership
• On the sidelines of APEC summit in Vietnam, 11 countries on the Pacific Rim have decided to go ahead with the Trans Pacific Partnership despite the USA’s withdrawal.
• TPP was a free trade agreement between USA and 11 other Pacific Rim nations i.e. Australia,
New Zealand, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, Vietnam, Japan, Canada, Mexico, Peru and
Chile, and was signed in 2016. However, USA withdrew from it.
• European Union adopted the decision to establish a European Union defence pact
known as Permanent Structured Cooperation on Defence.
• About the Pact
– It is an intergovernmental, binding, permanent framework and a structured process to
gradually deepen defence cooperation within EU framework.
– The aim is to jointly develop defence capabilities and make them available for EU
– The Member states can also make the military capabilities available under PESCO for United
Nations and NATO as well.
JOINT INTERPRETATIVE NOTES AGREEMENT WITH BANGLADESH
The JIN would impart clarity to the interpretation of the existing agreement between India and Bangladesh for the Promotion and Protection of Investments. Joint Interpretative Statements play an important supplementary role in strengthening the investment treaty regime.
NEW NUCLEAR WEAPON PROHIBITION TREATY
• Over 120 countries in the United Nations voted to adopt the first-ever global treaty to
ban nuclear weapons.
• The new treaty outlaws the entire range of activity relating to the production, stockpiling
and use of • nuclear weapons.
• The most central provision is Article 1(d) which categorically prohibits the use of
nuclear weapons or a threat to that effect, under all circumstance
AFGHANISTAN PAKISTAN TRANSIT TRADE
• The Afghanistan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement (also known as APTTA) is a bilateral trade
agreement signed in 2010 by Pakistan and Afghanistan that calls for greater facilitation in the
movement of goods amongst the two countries.
• The 2010 APTTA allows for both countries to use each other’s airports, railways, roads, and ports for transit trade along designated transit corridors.
• The agreement does not cover road transport vehicles from any third country, be it from India
or any Central Asia country.
• The APTTA agreement allows Afghan trucks to transpor texports to India via Pakistan up to the
Wagah crossing point, but does not offer Afghanistan the right to import Indian goods
across Pakistani territory.
INDUS WATER TREATY
• The Indus Waters Treaty was signed on September 19, 1960 by the then Prime
Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Pakistan’s President Ayub Khan
• The 1960 treaty for the Indus and five tributaries flowing from India to Pakistan
was brokered by the World Bank (then, the IBRD), and has held through wars and
conflicts along the Line of Control.
• The treaty administers how river Indus and its tributaries that flow in both the
countries will be utilized.
• According to the treaty, Beas, Ravi and Sutlej are to be governed by India, while, Indus, Chenab and Jhelum
• are to be taken care by Pakistan.
• However, since Indus flows from India, the country is allowed to use 20 per cent of its water
for irrigation,power generation and transport purposes.
• A Permanent Indus Commission was set up as a bilateral commission to implement and manage the Treaty.
• The Commission solves disputes arising over water sharing.
NUCLEAR NON PROLIFERATION TREATY
• Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to
prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote
cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving
nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
• Opened for signature in 1968, the Treaty entered into force in 1970. On 11 May
1995, the Treaty was extended indefinitely.
• Four UN member states have never joined the NPT: India, Israel, Pakistan and
• The treaty recognizes five states as nuclear-weapon states: the United States,
Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China (also the five permanent members
of the United Nations Security Council).
COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY
• The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty by which states agree to ban all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes. It was
adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996 but it has not entered into force due to the non-ratification of eight specific states.
• The CTBT has yet to become global law due to its demanding entry into force
clause, which requires the signature and ratification of all 44 countries listed as
nuclear technology capable.
• As of 2015, eight Annex 2 states have not ratified the treaty: China, Egypt, Iran, Israel and the United States have signed but not ratified the Treaty.
• India, North Korea and Pakistan have not signed it.
FISSILE MATERIAL CUT-OFF TREATY
• Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) is also a proposed international treaty to prohibit the
further production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other explosive devices. Neither this treaty has been negotiated nor have its terms been defined.
• Any material which can be used to create a Nuclear Bomb is a fissile material.
AFRICAN NUCLEAR WEAPON FREE ZONE TREATY
• The African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (‘‘the Treaty’’), also known as the Treaty of
Pelindaba, was the product of a effort seeking a nuclear weapon-free Africa.
• The treaty was signed in the year 1996.
• It entered into force on July 15, 2009, when Burundi became the 28th State to deposit its
instrument of ratification in 1996.
STRATEGIC ARMS REDUCTION TREATY(START)
• START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) was a bilateral treaty between the United
States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) on the reduction
and limitation of strategic offensive arms. The treaty was signed on 31 July 1991 and
entered into force on 5 December 1994.
• The treaty barred its signatories from deploying more than 6,000 nuclear warheads atop a total of 1,600 inter-continental ballistic missile.
• The START I treaty expired 5 December 2009. On 8 April 2010, the replacement New START treaty was signed in Prague by U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev.