- Over two years of struggle by 23 families of the aboriginal Kadar tribe to get homestead patta in the Anamalai Tiger Reserve (ATR) has come to an end.
- Minister for Electricity, Prohibition and Excise V. Senthil Balaji will hand over pattas to 21 Kadar tribal families in an event at Valparai, who are in the know of the development.
- 21 out of the 23 families who had sought for patta will get lands inside the ATR as an alternative for their traditional settlement namely ‘Kallarukudi’ which was destroyed in a landslide in August 2019.
- The alternative land Theppakulamedu is in the core area of the tiger reserve, around 15 km away from the hill town of Valparai.
- The 23 families, consisting of around 90 people, were evicted by the Forest Department after heavy rain and landslip hit Kallarkudi in August 2019, following which they erected temporary shelters in an adjacent area.
- They were shifted to an unused quarters of a tea estate at Thaimudi, around 10 km from Valparai, where they stayed until October 2 this year.
- The families had been demanding an alternative land inside the forest under provisions of the Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006, since then.
- Agitating the long delay in issuing patta, the families launched a protest near the border of ATR on October 2, on Gandhi Jayanthi, and shifted themselves to Theppakulamedu two days later.
- This is the first instance of tribal families getting back land in a core area of any of the tiger reserves in Tamil Nadu, after being evicted. This could also be a first instance in the country.
- Kadars are a “primitive tribe” from the forests of Palakkad and Thrissur districts of Kerala. In Malayalam, Kadar means forest dwellers.
- The tribe lives in small communities and used to practice a nomadic lifestyle and shifting cultivation, growing rice and millets.
- In the year 1947 to 1948, most of these Kadar tribes were found to collect several forest products like cardamom, honey and bamboo for the government contractors in lieu of items like money, rice, industrial goods, jewelleries, and toiletries.
- They also hunted birds, including hornbills, and small animals. There are only about 1,848 Kadars in Kerala now, as per the State Tribal Welfare Department.
- Kadar tribes maintain their originality and culture without adapting the changes over the years. Their food items include honey, roots and fish.
- These Kadar tribes have adapted the food habits of non veggies.
- Cycas seeds are often consumed and they do not rear cattle. House making too is unique.
- These are rectangular shaped made up from bamboo and also roofs are thatched with leaves.
- All the digging sticks were tipped with iron in the ancient times. However, nowadays iron is used.
- These Kadar tribes too have got a beautiful tradition of wearing beautiful dresses like bark clothes and hair combs that are made from bamboo.
Wedding in Kadar Tribe
- Following the tradition of most of the tribes of the country, these Kadar tribes regard marriage to be an important institution in the Kadar society.
- In general, a Kadar groom paid dowry to the bride. However, widow remarriage is not allowed. Polygamy is prevalent amongst maximum of these Kadar tribes.
- Kadar tribes have got orientation towards religion and spiritualism. Goddess Kali is the supreme deity and hundreds of these Kadar tribes revere her stone image.
- These Kadar tribes also follow the ritual of burying the dead bodies.
Anamalai Tiger Reserve
- It is the 29th and one of the four Tiger Reserves in Tamil Nadu.
- It lies South of the Palakkad gap in the Southern Western Ghats.
- It was originally a territorial division known as Coimbatore South Forest division which was declared as wildlife sanctuary in 1976.
- It forms part of the Anamalai Parambikulam Elephant Reserve declared in 2003.
- The Wildlife sanctuary was declared as Tiger Reserve in April 2007 and declared as a critical Tiger habitat in December 2007.
- It supports diverse habitat types viz. Wet evergreen forests, semi evergreen forests, moist deciduous, dry deciduous, dry thorn and shola forests.
Which of the following regions is the original habitat of the “Toda Tribe”?
- Khasi Hills
- Gharwal Hills
- Nilgiri Hills
- Kumaun Hills