Kurukshetra Magazine June 2018 | A journal on Rural Development | Free PDF Download

Chapter # 1 Agriculture


• Topic: New Priorities for Agriculture
• 55% of people’s livelihood on agriculture and allied activities
• contribute 17.4% in country’s Gross Value added

Problem in growth rate of Agri. and allied activity

• Growth rate is decreasing from 7% in 2010-11 to 2.8% in 2011-12 to 2.1% in current financial year

Aim of Government

• 4% annual growth rate in agri and allied activity

• To double the farmers income by 2022

• Doubling the food production by 2022

Government’s current initiatives

46% of arable land is covered under irrigation

Aim of government: – increase irrigated land – water use efficiency




Reducing Crop Losses from Pests

• Rs.90,000 to Rs.1.50 lacs cr losses annual Others

• BioTechnology

• Farm Mechanization

• Agricultural Credit

Aim: double the farmers income by 2022 Budgetary allocation of the agriculture and farmers welfare ministry for 2018-19 was Rs. 58,000 crore

Methods to improve agricultural productivity and income


Chapter # 2

Skill Development and Employment


# Skill Development and Employment Why Skill training is important especially in rural area?

• 70% of population in rural area; take advantage of the demography

• Supply of workforce is greater than jobs created

• involve the demography in productive activities; make

History of Skill Development Policy:


Institutional Infrastructure for Skill Development:


Current Problems

• Lesser jobs available
• Level of skill development is less
• Inequality in skill development, esp. in LWE
area, Hilly region, tribal
• Lack of state of art institution for training
• Convergence of Government scheme and skill
• Lack vocational training

Aim of Government

1.Skill Development for Rural youth
2.Employment Generation for Rural youth


Skilling Programmers for Rural Youth


B. Employment Generation of Rural Youth


Chapter # 3 EDUCATION

Nationwide sub-program under Sarva Siksha Abhiyaan, “Padhe Bharat, Badhe Bharat” was launched to improve language development and create interest in mathematics. Government implemented National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986 for achieving Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE). Operation Black Board, Shiksha Karmi Project, District Primary Education Programme and Sarva Siksha Abhiyaan are some of other projects.


• Centrally Sponsored Scheme

• strengthened by RTE 2009

• legal mandate to provide free and compulsory elementary education to every child in the age group of 6-14 years.

Achievements of SSA

• Covered 19.67 crore children

• Rural Areas account for 85% elementary school and 75% total enrollment

• GER is 99.21% for primary and 92.81% for upper primary

• PTR is increased from 25 from 32

• Dropout Rate came down to 4.13% from 6.76%

• Transition Rate has gone up from primary to upper primary There’s some concerns regarding quality of education.

Recent Initiative

Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat

• improve language development by creating interest in reading

• create positive interest in maths related to their physical and social world

• providing materials & kits


What further needs to be done?

• Holistic perspective rather than segmental approach

• Samagra Shiksha Abhiyaan initiated with the same objective of inclusive and equitable quality education

• Integration of school administration, teachers, parents and students through technology • Focus on educational backward areas, Children with Special needs, girls and marginalized students

• Focus on Teacher’s training, Creation of Digital Learning Material, Innovation Pedagogy

Chapter # 4 Road Network in Rural Area

Aim of this chapter to make a co-relation between the Rural Road Network across various states and Saturation achieved under Gram Swaraj Abhiyaan For success of any programme, 3 A’s are important: Availability ; Affordability ; Accessibility ROADS provide the fundamental link to the third A i.e. ACCESSIBILITY An efficient, reliable, safe and quality road infrastructure is essential for rural development Categorization of Roads by Ministry of Roads, Transport and Highways

1. National Highways 2. State Highways 3. District Roads 4. Project Roads 5. Urban Roads 6. Rural Roads

•. growth of Rural roads in recent years has been the most rapid.

•. comprises of 70% of total road network in country Categorization of Rural Roads by GOI

1. Panchayati Raj Roads – 47%

2. Constructed under Min. Rural Development’s PMGSY – 16%

3. Constructed by State PWD – 15%

4. Constructed under JRY – 23% Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana

•.To provide all weather roads to unconnected habitations

•.Part of poverty reduction strategy

•.Absolute length of total rural roads: MH>AS>UP>OD>MP>KR>WB>AP>TS GRAM SWARAJ ABHIYAAN To spread awareness about pro-poor initiatives of government and achieving saturation of eligible household under 7 flagship scheme

1. PM Ujjwala Yojana 2. Saubhagya 3. UJALA 4. PMJDY 5. PM JJBY 6. PMSBY 7. Mission Indradhanush


Further steps to be taken in Rural Road development

• Pragmatic planning

• Increase budgetary requirements of construction

• Proper Maintenance

• 5 Es: Engineering of roads, Engineer of vehicles, Education and awareness of citizen, Enforcement of traffic rules and Emergency post accident care

• Data backed Policy making

Chapter # 5 Rural Development

Aim of the chapter: ongoing initiatives of GOI on Rural infrastructural development

• Rural development directly proportional to Rural infrastructure

• Economics of rural well being rests on infrastructure especially on socio economic infrastructure

• Infrastructure has positive impact on economic development 1% increase in stock of infrastructure is associated with 1% increase in GDP

• Rural sector has multiplier effect Various rural infrastructure scheme

1. Rural Housing: PMAY

2. Roads: PM GSY

3. Agriculture Credit

4. Sanitation: Swachh Bharat Mission- Gramin

5. Electrification: Saubhagya

Rural Housing: Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojna – Grameen

• Indira Awaas Yojana was re-structured as Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojna

• Provide pucca housing; built in basic amenities

• Minimum size of 25sqm

• Motto: Housing for All, to 1 crore rural household within 2016-2019

Rural Roads : Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana

• Rs. 19,000 cr. has been allocated in current budget

• All weather road connectivity to villages

• Increased standard of living in rural area

• Increased business

• 82% of habitations are well connected

Agricultural Credit: Budgetary Allocation

• Sustained agricultural credit can help for rural development
• There has been significant improvement in budgetary


Sanitation: Swachh Bharat Mission- Grameen

• During 2014-19 government proposed to spend Rs. 1.34 lakh crore in rural area

• 82.38% of people have toilet facility at their premises

• 3.5 lakh villages were declared ODF

• 371 districts and 16 states were declared ODF

• Impact on public health, safe guarding self esteem and security of masses

Rural Electrification: Saubhagya

• Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana (Saubhagya).

• Provide energy access to all by last mile connectivity

• Electrified connection to all remaining unelectrified household

Chapter # 6 Telecom Connectivity

Aim of Chapter: To give a glimpse of vast market of Telecom industry in Rural India and how better Telecom connectivity and help for Rural Development across various sectors.

Schemes/Projects by GOI

Bharat Net Project

• DoT connecting 2.5 lakh villages panchayat through Optical Fiber Cable

• Last mile connectivity through Wi-Fi network Universal Service Obligation fund:

• Provide widespread and non-discriminatory access to quality ICT services at affordable prices to people in rural and remote areas.

• A fund is created under DoT, Ministry of Information Technology

• non-lapsable fund

• levy on telecom service provider and through government grants


• According to NASSCOM report, India possesses world 2nd largest internet use base after China

• State of internet usage in 2020 – 730 million internet usage in India – 75% of new Internet use growth from rural areas – 70% of e-commerce transaction via mobile phone – 75% of new internet users to consume data in regional language Google: Project Loon Facebook: Drone Program Potential Areas of Internet in Rural Areas Benefit from New Technologies

• 5G connectivity


  • Over the Top (OTT) Services

  • –3rd Party app or service that provides a product over the Internet and bypasses traditional distribution –Private companies: Ola, Amazon, Paytm, etc. –Public initiatives: JAM project, Kisan Suvidha App –Not For Profit: Smart Gaon App,
  •  Internet of Things It enables objects sharing information with other objects in the network, recognizing events and changes autonomously in appropriate manner Build Communication between machine leading to a value creation


Central Idea of discussion is how Telecom can transform the Rural Areas?
Various Application of IOT in sustainable Rural development:

Chapter # 7 Women and Child development

“I measure the progress of a community by the degree of progress which women have achieved.”— Dr. B. R. Ambedkar “The true character of society is revealed in how it treats its children” – Nelson Mandela Women being the largest minority group and children being the future of society, it becomes necessary to have their development and empowerment. GOI and especially Ministry of Women and Child Development has been working tirelessly to address the issue of women and child development Aim of the Chapter is to have a look at the various schemes by government for women and child development. Various initiatives by the government are given in the next slide.

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao

• To address declining sex ratio; strict enforcement of PC&PNDT Act; motivate higher education for girls; • initially applicable to specific districts

• Joint initiative of MoWCD + MoHFW + MoHRD

• 100 district, 58% increase in sex ratio at birth

• Status of institutional delivery improved in 80 districts compared to previous years.

• Girl’s enrollment in secondary education in 2015-16 has increased to 80.97% against 76% in 2013-14

• BBBP has expanded to all district National Nutrition Mission • Budget Rs. 9000 cr approx. • To achieve an improvement in nutritional status of children (0-6 years) and pregnant and lactating mothers

• Real time monitoring through Information and Communication Technology of ICDS with mobile based app (ICDS-CAS)

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana

• Maternity benefit programme

• Pan India

• Cash incentive of Rs.6000 during pregnancy and after institutional delivery Supplementary Nutrition (ICDS) Rules, 2017

• “nutrient dense food’ for every pregnant and lactating women till 6 months after child birth

• For every child in age group of 6 months to 6 years SABLA

• centrally sponsored scheme for Adolescent Girls

• Self development and empowerment; improve health and nutritional status

• Promote awareness about health, hygiene, reproduction, family and child care

• During 2015-16, 54 lakh beneficiaries covered under SABLA Swadhar Greh • to cater primary needs of women in difficult situations • Setting up of shelter, clothing, medical treatment, legal guidance • Rehabilitation for their emotional and economic state

• 561 Swadhar Greh established, One Window home constructed at Vrindavan Mahila Shakti Kendra • to address women issue at rural level • 3 lakh student volunteers engaged from local colleges, NCC, NSS. • Help women to access government scheme • “one stop convergent support service for their skill development, employment, digital literacy, health, etc. Mahila Police Volunteers (MPVs) • Effective alternate to local police for women • Serve as public-police interface and facilitate women in distress • MPVs report incidence of domestic violence, child marriage, dowry, etc • Operational in 5 states Mahila e-Haat

• To economically empower women through financial inclusion

• Direct online digital market platform

• Women/NGO/SHGs has transacted over Rs.20 lakh business One Stop Centres

• To ensure safety of women and children at public places

• To facilitate access to an integrated range of services including medical assistance, police assistance, legal counseling, psychological counseling Nirbhaya Fund

• to ensure safety and security of women; Corpus of Rs.2000 cr

• Integrated Emergency Response Management Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013

• To help women report sexual harassment

• She-Box (Online complaint portal) A brief of policies/initiative for Child Development Railway Child-Line

• Implemented by Railways for runaway, abandoned, kidnapped children

• Child helpline centres established

• Kiosk with Child Helpline setup at 24 railway stations; children are brought for temporary stay POCSO e-BOX

• To register complaint against child sexual abuse

• Direct online reporting; anonymity maintained;

• Khoya-Paya web portal for reporting Chapter # 8 Health Aim of Chapter: to discuss the challenges and problems in Rural Health Care system. The new initiatives of GOI for health.


• Rural population is 70% of 121 crore total population of India

• Medical services are urban centric

• Problem of Availability, Accessibility and Affordability

• Illiteracy, Poverty, family size, food intake, gender disparity, access to clean water, sanitation facility, information


Other Problems

1. Qualified Doctors

• WHO report states that 57% doctors didn’t have medical qualification particularly high in rural area

• Urban center with qualified doctor = 58%

• Rural center with qualified doctor = 19% only 2. Shortfall of Medical Centres and Human Resource

•. Current medical centres (Sub-Centres, Primary Health Centres and Community Centres) are not sufficient

•. Shortfall of ANM at SCs and PHCs was 5.6%

•. Shortfall of surgeon (86%), physician (85%), pediatricians (81%)

•. Only 26% current doctors serve in rural area 3. Public expenditure

•. in health is <1% of GDP

“Health is Wealth”

Right to Health as a basic human right under Article 21 NATIONAL HEALTH POLICY- 2017
• Improve role of government
• Achieve universal health coverage
• Delivery quality service
• Partnership with private sector
• Increase public expenditure to 2.5% of GDP
• Use of digital tool
2 major initiatives by Government in healthcare
1. Creation of Health and Wellness Centres (H&WC)
2. National Health Protection Scheme (NHPS) H&WC
•. Under Ayushman Bharat programme, 1st Health care and wellness centre at Bijapur, Chattishgarh
•. Focus on historically neglected district
•. Provide treatment for non-communicable disease
•. Provide free essential drugs and diagnostic
•. Comprehensive health care i.e. preventive, promotive,
curative and rehabilitative
•. Oral health services, mental health, elderly health and emergency health National Health Protection Scheme
• Cover over 10 crore poor and vulnerable scheme
• coverage upto 5 lakh rupees per family for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization
• National Health Agency will be instituted
• Earlier RSBY covered by Rs.30,000 Rs and targeted BPL
• Expenditure shared by Centre and State in 60% to 40% ration and in case of North East 90% to 10%

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