malaria

Mosquirix Malaria Vaccine How It Will Help India – Free PDF Download

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The News

About Malaria

  • Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites. The parasites are spread to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, called “malaria vectors.”
    • There are 5 parasite species that cause malaria in humans, and 2 of these species pose the greatest threat.
    • falciparum
    • vivax
  • In 2018 P. falciparum accounted for 99% of estimated malaria cases in the WHO African Region 50% of cases in the WHO South-East Asia Region, 71% of cases in the Eastern Mediterranean and 65% in the Western Pacific.
  • vivax is the predominant parasite in the WHO Region of the Americas, representing 75% of malaria cases.

About Malaria

About Malaria

  • In 2019, according to the WHO, there were an estimated 229 million cases of malaria, and the estimated deaths were 4,09,000. About 67% of the deaths were among children aged under five, the group most vulnerable to malaria. 

Malaria Vaccine Development

  • The development of the malaria vaccine was led by pharma major GSK for over two decades. In 2001, GSK began collaborating with Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI) & Belinda Gates Foundation.
  • GSK has developed RTS,S/AS01, a recombinant protein-based vaccine that acts against P. falciparum.
  • It reportedly offers no protection against P.vivax malaria..!!

Malaria Vaccine Development

  • A five-year Phase 3 efficacy and safety trial concluded in 2014. In 2015, the European Medicines Agency authorised the use of the vaccine, concluding that the benefits of the vaccine outweighed the risks.
  • In the phased study, known side-effects included pain and swelling at the injection site and fever. In some cases, it increased risk of febrile seizures within 7 days of administration. In the Phase 3 trial, children who had febrile seizures after vaccination recovered completely, and there were no long-lasting consequences.

Malaria Vaccine Development

  • Pilots projects were launched in Malawi, Ghana, and Kenya over 2019.
    • Projects rolled out in sub-Saharan Africa showed that among children aged 5-17 months who received the recommended four doses of RTS,S the vaccine prevented approximately
      • 4 in 10 (39%) cases of malaria over four years of follow-up
      • 3 in 10 (29%) cases of severe malaria, with a significant reduction in overall hospital admissions due to malaria or severe anaemia (a side effect)
      • 29% reduction in need for blood transfusions to correct life-threatening anaemia
    • Health workers also reported that the vaccine was easy to introduce and integrate into their schedule.
  • Based on this data submitted, the WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunisation and the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee gave the go-ahead for the first ever anti-malarial vaccine.

Will the Vaccine help India?

Will the Vaccine help India?

  • Malaria is a major public health problem in India, endemic to many States.
  • India accounts for about 2% of world cases.
  • India will surely benefit from the vaccine.!!, In fact, Bharat Biotech has already entered into a partnership with GSK for technology transfer and production.
  • This vaccine is likely to be ready for use in India, in a couple of years.

 

 

 

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