One China Policy | Indian History | Free PDF Download

Why in news?

Trump’s flip flop on ‘One China Policy’


How many Chinas are out there?

1?? 2?? It’s complicated


End of Chinese Civil war

Kuomintang (Nationalists) under the leadership of Chiang Kai Shek retreated to the island of Taiwan ,after being defeated by Communists (led by Mao Zedong).

One China ‘Principle’

Both the ROC and PRC accept that mainland China and island of Taiwan are part of one ‘China’ ,that there are not two but one ‘’China’’ The point of contention is the legitimacy of both the governments.

One China ‘Policy’

The policy or view that there is only one state called “China”, despite the existence of two governments that claim to be “China”. countries seeking diplomatic relations with the PRC must break official relations with the ROC and vice versa


Which ‘China’ does USA recognise and support?

  •  Prior to 1971 – As PRC was a cold war ally of USSR (and fully communist), USA provided diplomatic, military support to ROC.
  • The Vietnam war and Sino-Soviet spilt forced USA to normalise relations with PRC
  •  PRC also wanted to balance an aggressive USSR and sought friendly terms.
  • 1972 – Nixon visited PRC. Accepted ‘One China’ to normalise relations with PRC.
  •  1979- Officially broke off ties with ROC (Still has good relations and is a huge arms supplier!)

Current Imbroglio  

  • Trump threatens revision of ‘One China Policy’ to get better terms and condition on trade with China.
  •  China doesn’t budge at all.
  •   Finally, POTUS says ‘One China policy’ shall be respected.

World History | Free PDF