- After independence from colonial rule India and Pakistan fought a war over the princely state of Kashmir. At the end of the war India controlled the most valuable parts of Kashmir.While there were sporadic periods of violence there was no organised insurgency movement.
- This was a time of political instability & power struggle in Jammu and Kashmir and it went through several periods of President’s rule by the Federal Government.
- During the early period of militancy in 1989, multiple militants groups strive to Islamise Kashmiri culture and political setup to create a conducive environment for the merger of Kashmir with Pakistan.
- Numerous Islamist groups were formed in early 1990 who emerged advocating Nizam-e-Mustafa (Rule of Muhammad) as the objective for their struggle. Militant groups like Hizbul mujahideen and Jamaat-e-Islami asserted that struggle of Kashmir will continue till Islamic Caliphate is achieved in Kashmir.
- Apart from militants, Kashmir was witnessing Islamization during 1980’s when Abdullah Government changed the names of about 2,500 villages from their native names to new Islamic names.
- The Sheikh also started delivering communal speeches in mosques similar to his speeches in the 1930s. Additionally, he referred Kashmiri Pandits as “mukhbir” or informers of the Indian government 1990
- After Sheikh Abdullah’s death, his son Farooq Abdullah took over as Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir.
- Farooq Abdullah eventually fell out of favour with the Central Government and the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had his government toppled with the help of his brother-in-law G. M. Shah.
- A year later, Abdullah reached an accord with the new Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and announced an alliance with the Congress party for the elections of 1987. The elections were allegedly rigged in favour of Abdullah
- Operation Rakshak is an ongoing counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism operation started during the height of insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir in June 1990.
- The operation adapted itself from being merely a “show of strength” in 1990 to encompassing more areas in 1991 such as orders “not to enter the houses of civilians”, “not to smoke in religious places” and “not to damage standing crops”.753 Indian army personnel died during Operation Rakshak between 2007 and 2015.
- Major Mohit Sharma, who was killed while performing duties under Operation Rakshak, was posthumously awarded India’s highest peacetime gallantry award ‘Ashok Chakra’ on 15 August 2009.
- Corporal Jyoti Prakash Nirala was also killed during Operation Rakshak 18 November 2017, and was posthumously awarded the Ashok Chakra 25 January 2018.The Operation Rakshak Memorial is located in Badami Bagh Cantonment, Srinagar.