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Operation Wrath Of God – World History – Free PDF

 

MUNICH MASSACRE

  • The Munich massacre was an attack during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, in which the Palestinian terrorist group took eleven Israeli Olympic team members hostage and killed them along with a West German police officer.
  • Shortly after the crisis began, they demanded that 234 Palestinian prisoners jailed in Israel.
  • Police officers killed five of the eight Black September.The other three Palestinian hijackers were captured. the eleven Israelis players were killed at Munich by terrorists

OPERATION

  • Mossad responded with the 1973 Israeli raid on Lebanon and Operation Wrath of God, tracking down and killing Palestinians suspected of involvement in the Munich massacre.
  • Two days after the Munich massacre,Israel retaliated by bombing ten PLO bases in Syria and Lebanon. Prime Minister Golda Meir created Committee X, a small group of government officials tasked with formulating an Israeli response
  • Mossad Director Zvi Zamir, took the principal role in directing the ensuing operation.

 OPERATION

  • The committee came to the conclusion that, to deter future violent incidents against Israel, they needed to assassinate those who had supported or carried out the Munich massacre, and in dramatic fashion.
  • Pressured by Israeli public opinion and top intelligence officials, Meir reluctantly authorized the beginning of the broad assassination campaign.
  • The committee’s first task for Israeli intelligence was to draw up an assassination list of all those involved in Munich.

OPERATION

  • This was accomplished with the aid of PLO operatives working for Mossad, and with information provided by friendly European intelligence agencies.
  • While the contents of the entire list are unknown, reports put the final number of targets at 20–35, a mix of Black September and PLO elements. Once this was complete, Mossad was charged with locating the individuals and assassinating them.
  • The aim was not so much revenge but mainly to make them frightened.

1972-1988

  • The first assassination occurred on October 16, 1972, when Palestinian Wael Zwaiter was killed in Rome.
  • The second target of Mossad was Mahmoud Hamshari, the PLO representative in France. Mossad lured him from his apartment in Paris to allow a demolition team to enter and install a bomb underneath a desk telephone. On December 8, 1972 causing the bomb to explode.
  • On the night of January 24, 1973, Hussein Al Bashir turned off the lights in his Olympic Hotel room in Nicosia. Moments later, a bomb planted under his bed was remotely detonated 1972-1988
  • On April 6, 1973, Basil al-Kubaissi, a law professor at the American University of Beirut suspected by Israel of providing arms logistics for Black September as well as being involved in other Palestinian plots,was gunned down in Paris while returning home from dinner.
  • On the night of April 9, 1973, commandos landed on the coast of Lebanon were met by Mossad agents, who drove them to their targets.In Beirut, they raided guarded apartment buildings and killed Muhammad Youssef al-Najjar (Operations leader in Black September), Kamal Adwan (a Chief of Operations in the PLO) and Kamal Nasser (PLO Executive Committee member and spokesman).

1972-1988

  • On June 28, 1973, Boudia was killed in Paris by a pressureactivated bomb.On December 15, 1979, two Palestinians, Ali Salem Ahmed and Ibrahim Abdul Aziz, were killed in Cyprus. According to police, both men were shot with silenced weapons at point-blank range.
  • On July 23, 1982, Fadl Dani, deputy director of the PLO office in Paris, was killed by a bomb that had been placed in his car. On August 21, 1983, PLO official Mamoun Meraish was killed in his car in Athens.
  • On June 10, 1986, Khaled Ahmed Nazal, Secretary-General of the PLO’s.On October 21, 1986, Munzer Abu Ghazala, a senior PLO official and member of the Palestinian National Council, was killed .On February 14, 1988, a car bomb exploded killing Palestinians Abu Al Hassan Qasim and Hamdi Adwan, and wounding Marwan Kanafami.

 

 

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