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Practical in Physical Anthro | UPSC Important Notes & Study Material

Notes By-
 
Sachin Gupta
 
Cleared UPSC 2017 with AIR-3

Introduction

 

Physical Anthropology in current context is an exploration of adaptation that
took place during the course of evolution. From morphological studies to genetic
and to genetic-environment, physical anthropology has had a long journey which
still continues all in endeavor to understand our past, present and future
intrinsically. It is primarily a research-based discipline. Practical is an application
of the theoretical knowledge. Practicals in physical anthropology has opened the
doors for applied research in diverse fields committed to understand every aspect
of man more minutely because of its strength to absorb new techniques in its
framework. This is one of the reasons for the changing definition of physical
anthropology over the years.

The block Practical in Physical Anthropology consists of four units. These units
have been designed in such a manner that it also gives you a fair idea of the
applications too. Unit 1 based on Osteology and Instrument used has two
components in it: Osteology and Instruments Used. The skeletal system of human
and bones are discussed briefly in the osteology section whereas a brief description
of the instruments used for taking measurements of bones and human being are
dealt in Instrument Used. The measurements of human body is not only important
in evolutionary perspective but it also holds immense significance in racial
classification and designing purposes; Unit 2 has sections on craniometry;
measurement on cranium, mandibulometry: measurement on mandible or lower
jaw, somatoscopy: visual observation of physical features of various parts of
human body and somatometry: measurement on living human body. Unit 3 has
physiological variables i.e., measurement of blood pressure, heart rate and pulse
rate and am sure you would enjoy taking them. Serology and dermatoglyphics
are the genetic traits and brief description of the technique used to analyse the
blood groups (serology) and palm and finger print (dermatoglyphics) is given in
Unit 4. Each technique and its procedure is given very clearly in the block, hope
you enjoy it.
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Osteology and Instruments UNIT 1 OSTEOLOGY AND INSTRUMENTS Used
USED
OSTEOLOGY
Practical forms an important component in understanding theory we learn. In
this unit let us get familiar with important bones in our body including skull.
Osteology is the scientific study of bones and understanding of human skeleton
constituting an important part of Physical Anthropology.
Skeleton: The skeleton is a bony and cartilaginous framework of the body.The
skeletal framework is found either internally or externally. In some vertebrate
animals it is found both internally and externally.
Endoskeleton: The skeleton is located internally in the body.
Exoskeleton:The skeleton is located externally. In human beings the exoskeleton
is rudimentary and is represented by nails and enamel of teeth.
Functions of Skeleton
1) It constitutes the framework of the body and gives form and shape to the body.
2) Forms the central axis of the body.
3) Supports and transmits the weight of the body.
4) Provides levers essential for locomotion.
5) Gives attachments to muscles and ligaments.
6) Provides protection to vital organs such as brain, heart and lungs.
The human skeleton consists of 206 bones, and is divided into two major portionsthe
axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton (Fig 1.1).
Fig.1.1: Human Skeleton (Anterior View)
Source: 365ayearofdailytasking
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Axial skeleton: The axial skeleton consists of the bony and cartilaginous parts.
It consists of the 80 bones and it is formed by the Vertebral column (26), the Rib
cage (12 pairs of ribs and the sternum), and the Skull (22 bones and 7 associated
bones).
Appendicular Skeleton: The appendicular skeleton consists of a total of 126
bones and is formed by the pectoral girdles (4), the upper limbs (60), the pelvic
girdle (2), and the lower limbs (60).
The appendicular skeleton is divided into six major regions:
1) Pectoral Girdles (4 bones) – Left and right Clavicle (2) and Scapula (2).
2) Arm and Forearm (6 bones) – Left and right Humerus (2) (Arm), Ulna (2)
and Radius (2) (Fore Arm).
3) Hands (58 bones) – Left and right Carpal (16) (wrist), Metacarpal (10),
Proximal phalanges (10), Middle phalanges (8), distal phalanges (10), and
sesamoid (4).
4) Pelvis (2 bones) – Left and right os coxae (2) (ilium).
5) Thigh and leg (8 bones) – Femur (2) (thigh), Tibia (2), Patella (2) (kneecap),
and Fibula (2) (leg).
6) Feet (56 bones) – Tarsals (14) (ankle), Metatarsals (10), Proximal phalanges
(10), middle phalanges (8), distal phalanges (10), and sesamoid (4).
Classification of Bones: There are five types of bones in the body. They are
long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones and sesmoid bones.
1) Long bones: Each long bone has an elongated shaft or diaphysis and two
expanded ends (epiphyses) which are smooth and articular. Examples of
typical long bones are humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia and fibula,
metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges.
2) Short bones: Short bones are defined as being approximately as wide as
they are long and have a primary function of providing support and stability
with little movement. Examples: carpal and tarsal bones in the wrist and foot.
3) Flat Bones: These bones resemble shallow plates and form boundaries of
certain body cavities. The example of a flat bone is the scapula, sternum,
cranium, pelvis and ribs.
4) Irregular bones: The bones, which cannot be grouped under any of the
above groups, are included in this category. Bones of the vertebral column,
sacrum and mandible are the best examples.
5) Sesamoid bones: These are bony nodules found embedded in the tendons
or joint capsules. The patella (knee cap) is a good example.
The following is the brief description of skull, pelvis, long bones (femur, radius,
ulna, femur, tibia and fibula), clavicle, scapula and sternum.
Skull: Skull (Fig. 1.2) is the upper most part of the human skeleton consisting of
head and face. The human skull usually consists of 22 bones. Except for the
mandible (lower jaw), all of the bones of the skull are connected together by
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sutures. The skeleton of a skull without mandible is called Cranium which is
made up of with 8 bones and thirteen bones form the facial skeleton. The mandible
is a movable bone held to the cranium by ligaments.
Fig.1.2: Skull (Anterior view)
Source: face-and-emotion.com
The cranial bones can be divided into two categories: the calvaria and the cranial
base. The calvaria is the dome-shaped superior portion of the cranium. It is
composed of the frontal, occipital, and parietal bones, and the flat portion of the
temporal bones. The cranial base is composed of the two remaining cranial bones,
the ethmoid and the sphenoid bone. Fourteen facial bones form the other
components of the skull. The facial bones are composed of the inferior nasal
conchae, lacrimal bones, mandible, maxillary bones, nasal bones, palatine bones,
vomer and zygomatic bones.
Let us get familiar with the description of the bones of the Cranium and Facial
skeleton.
Cranium
Eight bones constitute the cranium. The eight bones are, frontal (1), parietal (2),
occipital (1), temporal (2), sphenoid (1) and ethmoid (1).
Frontal bone: The frontal bone forms the anterior part of the skull above the
eyes. On the upper margin of each orbit, the frontal bone is marked by a
supraorbital foramen and or supraorbital notch.
Parietal bones: The two parietal bones jointly constitute upper part of the lateral
wall of the cranium. One parietal bone is located on each side of the skull, just
behind the frontal bone. Both the parietal bones jointly form the bulging sides
and roof of the cranium.
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Occipital bone: This bone forms the back of the skull and the base of the
cranium. The lambdoidal suture connects the occipital bone and the parietal bones.
There is a large opening on its lower surface called the foramen magnum. Occipital
condyles, which are rounded processes are located on each side of the foramen
magnum, articulate with the atlas (first vertebra) of the vertebral column.
Temporal bone: On each side of the skull the temporal bone joins the parietal
bone along a squamosal suture. Parts of the sides and the base of the cranium are
formed by the temporal bones. The external auditary meatus, is an opening which
is located near the inferior margin and leads to inward parts of the ear. We find
there are two projections-a rounded mastoid process and a long, pointed styloid
process under the external auditary meatus. A zygomatic process projects
anteriorly from the temporal bone and joins the zygomatic bone.
Sphenoid bone: On the anterior portion of the cranium this sphenoid bone is
wedged between numerous other bones. It consists of a central part and two
greater and two lesser wings. The base of the cranium, sides of the skull and
floors and sides of the orbits are formed by the sphenoid bone. A portion of the
sphenoid bone rises up and forms a saddle shaped mass called the sella turcica.
Ethmoid bone: The ethmoid bone is cubical in shape and is very light. It is
situated at the anterior part of the base of the cranium and contributes in forming
the medial walls of the orbits, the septum of the nose, and roof and lateral walls
of the nasal cavity.
Facial Skeleton
The facial skeleton consists of fourteen bones of which thirteen are immovable,
the lower jaw being a movable bone. These bones include, Maxilla (2), Zygomatic
(2), Lacrimal (2), Nasal (2), Inferior nasal conchae (2), Palatine (2), Vomer (1)
and Mandible (1).
Maxillary bones: The upper jaw is formed by the maxillary bones. The inferior
border of each maxillary bone projects downward forming an alveolar process.
These processes together form a horseshoe-shaped alveolar arch. The anterior
roof of the mouth, floor of the orbits, and sides and floor of the nasal cavity
comprise the portions of maxillary bones. These bones also contain the sockets
of the upper teeth. Lateral to the nasal cavity, inside the maxillae are maxillary
sinuses, which are the largest of the sinuses. In course of development to form
the anterior section of the hard palate, portions of the maxillae (palatine processes),
grow together and fuse along the midline. The alveolar process is formed by the
inferior border of each maxillary bone which is projecting downwards. Together
these processes forms a horseshoe shaped alveolar arch.
Zygomatic bones: The prominences of the cheeks below and to the sides of the
eyes are formed by these zygomatic bones. In the formation the lateral walls and
floors of the orbits the zygomatic bones helps a lot. Each of these zygomatic
bones has a temporal process, which extend posteriorly to unite the zygomatic
process of a temporal bone. Jointly these two processes (temporal process,
zygomatic process) form a zygomatic arch.
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Lacrimal bones: The lacrimal bone is situated in the medial wall of each orbit
between the ethmoid bone and maxilla.
Nasal bones: These nasal bones lie side by side and are fused at the midline
and form the bridge of the nose. The nasal bones are long, thin and almost
rectangular.
Inferior nasal conchae: These bones are scroll-shaped, delicate and attached to
the lateral walls of the nasal cavity. The inferior conchae, provide support for
mucous membranes within the nasal cavity like that of the superior and middle
conchae.
Palatine bones: Each bone is more or less L-shaped. These palatine bones are
situated at the back the maxillae. The horizontal portions serve as both the
posterior section of the hard palate and the floor of the nasal cavity. The lateral
walls of the nasal cavity are formed by the perpendicular portions of the palatine
bones.
Vomer: Vomer is located in the midsagittal line. This bone articulates with the
sphenoid and the ethmoid bones and the left and right palatine bones. It also
articulates with the left and right maxillary bones.
Mandible: The mandible is a movable bone held to the cranium by ligaments
and consists of a horizontal, horseshoe-shaped body with a flat portion projecting
upward at each end.
These two processes called an anterior coronoid process and the other is a posterior
mandibular condyle. The coronoid processes serve as attachments for muscles
used in chewing where as the mandibular condyles articulate with the mandibular
fossae of the temporal bones. The other large chewing muscles are inserted on
the lateral surface of the mandible. The alveolar arch that contain the hollow
sockets bear the lower teeth.
Morphologically, the human skull can be studied in five different views
Norma verticalis – Superior view
Norma basalis – Inferior view
Norma frontalis – Anterior view
Norma Occipitalis – Posterior view
Norma Lateralis – Lateral view
Norma Verticalis (Fig 1.3 and 1.4): The general contour of the cranium, the
nature and the eminences as well as the nature of the sutures can be better
understood by studying cranium in this view. In this view some skulls are oval
while some appear circular in shape. In this view portions of frontal, two parietal
and occipital bones, and also three sutures namely the coronal sutures, the sagittal
suture and lambdoid sutures are seen. The point of junction of the sagittal
suture with the coronal sutures is termed the bregma and that of the sagittal and
lambdoid sutures is termed the lambda. The landmarks like coronale, bregma,
euryon, and opisthocranion are seen in this view.
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Fig.1.3: Norma Verticalis
Fig.1.4: Norma Verticalis with landmarks
Norma Frontalis (Fig. 1.5 and 1.6): In this view, the skull exhibits somewhat
oval outline, wider above than below and limited above by the frontal bone,
zygomatic bone and the mandibular rami on the lateral side and mandible on the
lower side. The skull in this view is divided into two major parts, the upper and
lower. The upper part is mostly formed by the frontal bone, and the lower part
which is made up of the bones of the face is irregular with two orbits and the
anterior bony aperture of the nose. The lateral margins and the lower border of
the facial part are formed by the Mandible.
The following is the brief account on the upper and lower parts.
Upper part: The curved elevations of the frontal bone known as supraorbital
ridges, just above the orbits joined to one another in the middle by the glabella.
The nasal bones meet the frontal bone in the fronto-nasal suture, which is below
the glabells and the mid point of is termed as nasion. The two rounded eminences
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above the supraorbital ridges one on either side are known as frontal eminences.
Parts of parietal, temporal and sphenoid wings are seen in this upper part.
Lower Part: When we observe the skull from the lower part, the orbits are
quadrangular in shape. The upper margins of orbits are entirely formed by the
frontal bone, and the lateral margins are formed by the zygomatic process of the
frontal bone above, and by the frontal process of the zygomatic bone, below. The
infraorbital margins are formed medially by the maxillae and laterally by the
zygomatic bone. Between the maxillæ and below the nasal bones is seen the
pyriform aperture. This pyriform aperture is surrounded by pointed margins and
to this the lateral and alar cartilages of the nose are attached. Viewing of the skull
in norma frontalis, the mandible exhibits mainly the alveolar margin, chin region
and the mental foramina. The gonion is the lateral most and inferior point on
angle of the jaw.
Fig.1.5: Norma Frontalis
Fig.1.6: Norma frontalis with land marks
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Norma Basalis (Fig. 1.7 and 1.8): When we view the skull in this position from
the external surface, (excluding the mandible) it is surrounded by the incisor
teeth in front; by the superior nuchal lines of the occipital behind; and by the
alveolar arch laterally. In this position palatine processes of the maxillæ and
palatine bones, the pterygoid processes, the vomer, spinous processes, and parts
of sphenoid, the surfaces of the squamæ and mastoid and petrous portions of the
temporals, and the surface of the occipital bone, are found. The hard palate
forms the anterior part where as the middle and posterior parts are formed by a
transverse line drawn through the anterior margin of the foramen magnum. The
surface of the skull in this norma is very irregular and is separated into anterior,
middle and posterior portions.
On the anterior part of norma basalis, both antero-posteriorly and transversely,
the palate is arched. The palatine vault is greatest in the region of the molar teeth
with respect to the depth and breadth. The maxillae and the horizontal plates of
the palatine bones form the bony plate of the palatine process. These are divided
from one another by a cruciform suture, made up the intermaxillary, interpalatine
and palatomaxillary sutures. On the middle part of this norma, the pterygoid
process of the sphenoid bone descends behind the third molar from the junction
of its greater wing and the body. The medial pterygoid plate is narrower of the
two and projects directly backwards. The posterior border of the vomer separates
the two posterior nasal apertures in the medial plane anteriorly. The tympanic
piece of the temporal bone separates the articular fossa from the external auditory
meatus. On the posterior part of the norma basalis, the foramen magnum of the
occipital bone occupies the anterior part. The antero-posterior distance is greater
than the transverse and it is in oval shape. On each side by the occipital condyles,
the margin of the foramen is slightly interrupted on anterior side and it projects
downwards to articulate with the atlas. There lies a jugular foramen between the
occipital bone and the jugular fossa. The external occipital crest is seen on the
squamous part of the occipital bone on the median plane behind the foramen
magnum.
Fig.1.7: Norma Basialis
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Fig.1.8: Norma Basialis with Land marks
Norma Lateralis (Fig. 1.9 and 1.10) : In this view the skull consists of the
cranium above and behind, and of the face below and in front. The cranium is
rather ovoid in shape. The contour varies from cases and depends largely on the
length and height of the skull. In this view seen are the frontal, the parietal, the
occipital, the temporal, and the greater wing of the sphenoid bone.
Fig.1.9: Norma Lateralis
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Fig.1.10: Norma Lateralis with Land marks
The frontal process of the zygomatic bone and the temporal line is called the
temporal fossa. The bottom of the temporal fossa gives origin to the temporalis
muscle and it in turn controls the movements of the mandible. The temporal
process of the zygomatic bone and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone
forms the zygomatic arch. The glenoid fossa is formed by the zygomatic process
of the temporal bone (the zygoma), which widens posteriorly as it approaches
the squamous part which is divided into an anterior and posterior root which
form the respective borders of the articular fossa. The posterior part of the posterior
root of the zygoma open by the external auditory meatus. The external meatus is
formed by the tympanic plate of the temporal bone from the anterior, inferior
and the lower part of the posterior margin. The mastoid process articulates with
the parietal bone in parietomastoid suture and it articulates posteriorly with the
occipital bone in occipitomastoid suture. In this view of the cranium the parts
like, the alveolar margin, the mental protuberance, the condyloid process, part
of the coronoid process, the sigmoid notch, the body of the mandible are seen.
Norma Occipitalis (Fig. 1.11 and 1.12) In this position the cranium is more or
less circular outline. The two mastoid processes forms the base of the arch.
External occipital protuberance is seen in this norma and this is situated on the
lower part of the field in the median plane with the ridges leading out from it.
Passing laterally from the protuberance, the superior nuchal lines are the distinct
ridges which form the boundary lines between the scalp and the back of neck.
The land mark ‘inion’ is observed prominently on the external occipital
protuberance.
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Fig. 1.11: Norma Occipitalis with Land marks
Pelvis
The pelvis (Fig. 1.12), lies between the segments of the vertebral column and the
lower limbs and looks like a basin. Pelvis consists of four bones: the two hip
bones laterally and in front and the sacrum and coccyx behind. The pelvis is
divided into a greater (false) pelvis and lesser (true) pelvis. The expanded portion
of the cavity above the pelvic inlet which is bound on each side by the ilium and
behind by the base of the sacrum is the greater pelvis. The pelvic cavity which is
located below and behind the pelvic brim forms the true pelvis. The true pelvis
possesses an inlet, outlet, and a cavity.
Fig.1.12: Pelvis
Source: graphicshunt.com
The boundaries of the inlet constitute brim of the pelvis and it is heart shaped. It
consists of three main diameters: antero-posterior which is extending from the
lumbosacral angle to the symphysis pubis; transverse and which is extending
from the iliopubic eminence to the opposite sacroiliac joint. The outlet is bound
behind by the apex of the coccyx and laterally by the ischial tuberosities and it is
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irregular in shape. The antero-posterior diameter of the outlet is extended from
the apex of the coccyx to the lower part of the symphysis pubis. The transverse
diameter of the outlet is extended between the broadest parts of the lateral walls.
The cavity is a short and curved canal considerably deeper behind than in front.
Hip bone: This is the large bone of the pelvis and is irregular in shape. Each hip
bone develops from three parts, an ilium, an ischium, and a pubis. These three
parts fuse in the walls of the acetabulum. This depression is on the lateral surface
of the hipbone, and it receives the rounded head of the femur. The ilium includes
the upper part of the acetabulum and the ischium includes the lower part of the
acetabulum. The two partner hip bones articulate anteriorly at the symphysis
pubis. A portion of each pubis passes posteriorly and downward to join ischium.
On either side of these bones and between the bodies we find a large opening.
This is called the obturator foramen. The obturator foramen is the largest foramen
in the skeleton.
Pectoral Girdle
The pectoral girdle, also call it as shoulder girdle consists of the clavicle and
scapula in humans. We find on the dorsal (posterior) part two scapula and on the
anterior (ventral) part two clavicles.
Scapula: Scapula is a flat, triangular bone, with two surfaces (dorsal and costal),
three borders (superior, lateral and medial) and three angles (inferior, superior
and lateral). We find scapula on the posterior part of the pectoral girdle. The
dorsal surface of each scapula is divided into unequal portions by a spine. This
spine leads to two processes, an acromion process, which forms the tip of the
shoulder, and a coracoid process, which curves forward and downward below
the clavicle. The acromion process articulates with the clavicle. The acromian
and the coracoid process also provides attachments for arm and chest muscles.
Between the acromion and coracoid processes there is a depression called the
glenoid cavity. This cavity articulates with the head of the humerus.
Fig. 1.13: Scapula
Source: reel.utsc.utoronto.ca
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Clavicle: It is a long, curved bone which forms the anterior part of the pectoral
girdle. It is a slender, rodlike bone with elongated S-shape. It is located at the
base of the neck and run horizontally between the manubrium and scapula. The
clavicle has two ends (sternal and acromial), two borders (anterior and posterior),
and four surfaces (anterior, posterior, upper and inferior). The lateral, or acromial
end is flattened and articulates with the acromion of the scapula.
Fig.1.14: Clavicle
Source: blissfullyaesthetic.bl…
Sternum: The sternum or breastbone is located along the midline in the anterior
portion of the thoracic cage. The sternum from the upper end supports the clavicle,
and its margins articulate with the cartilage of the first seven pairs of ribs. Sternum
is a flat, elongated bone that consists of three parts, an upper manubrium, a
middle body and a lower xiphoid process, which projects downwards. The
manubrium articulates with the clavicles by facets on its superior borders.
Fig.1.15: Sternum
Source: learnbones.com
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Limbs: Human skeleton consists of upper limbs and lower limbs. The arm, wrist,
palm and fingers form the upper limbs. The arm is divided into upper arm and
forearm. The upper arm contains a single bone the humerus, the forearm with
two bones, radius and ulna and the wrist, palm and fingers contain carpals,
metacarpals and phalanges. The bones of the lower limb form the framework of
the leg, ankle, foot and toes. The bones of the lower limb include femur, tibia,
fibula, tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges.
Humerus: The humerus is a heavy and longest bone that extends from the scapula
to the elbow. It has a cylindrical shaft and two (upper and lower) extremities.
The upper extremity has a smooth rounded head that fits into the glenoid cavity
of the scapula. Just below the head, there are two processes- a greater tubercle
on the lateral side and a lesser tubercle on the anterior side. The lower extremity
consists, anteriorly the two smooth condyles (a lateral capitulum and a medial
trochlea), and two fossae- lateral (radial) and medial (coronoid); and posteriorly,
the olecranon fossa which lodges the olecranon process of ulna. The capitulum
articulates with the head of the radius.
Fig.1.16: Humerus
Source: edoctoronline.com
Radius: Radius is the lateral bone of the forearm. It has two extended ends-the
head and the lower end, and a shaft. The head at the upper end of the radius
articulates laterally with the humerus and a notch of the ulna. On the shaft, just
below the head is a process called the radial tuberosity. The lower end of the
radius contains styloid process which is projected downwards from the lateral
surface.
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Fig. 1.17: Radius and Ulna
Source: britannica.com
Ulna: It is a thick, strong and its upper end looks like a hook. The Ulna bone
faces anteriorly and is the medial bone of the forearm. The upper end has two
processes the olecranon and the coronoid process. The lower end has the knoblike
head of the ulna, articulates with a
notch of the radius laterally and with
a disk of fibrocartilage inferiorly. In
cross-section the shaft of the ulna is
triangular and becomes gradually
narrow from the upper to the lower
end.
Femur: The femur is the longest
bone in the human body. The femur
extends from the hip joint to the knee
joint. It consists of upper and lower
ends and a shaft. The upper end has
a large rounded head, a neck and a
greater and a lesser trochanter. The
head of the femur projects medially
into the acetabulum of the hip bone.
The lower end of the femur consists
of the two condyles – the lateral and
medial condyles, which articulate
with the head of the tibia (of the
lower leg) and then patella (kneecap).
The shaft of the femur at the anterior
side is nearly cylindrical and convex
while it is thinnest at the middle and
widens more near the lower end
when compared to above.
Fig.1.18: Femur
Source: edoctoronline.com
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Tibia: The tibia is located on the medial side and the larger of the two lower leg
bones. It consists of an upper end, lower end and a shaft. The upper end is
expanded into two condyles, the medial and lateral condyles. These two have
concave surfaces and articulate with the condyles of the femur. The lower end of
tibia expands to form a prominence on the inner ankle called the medial malleolus.
The lower end articulates with the trochlear surface of the talus at the ankle
joint. The shaft of the tibia is triangular in cross-section and has three surfaces –
medial, lateral and posterior, and three borders-anterior, interosseous and medial.
Fibula: The fibula is located on the lateral side of the tibia and is a long and
slender one. It consists of a shaft, an upper end (head) and a lower end (the
lateral malleolus). The head of the fibula articulates with the tibia just below the
lateral condyle. The lateral malleolus articulates with the ankle and forms a
eminence on the lateral side. The shaft of the fibula has three borders anterior,
posterior and interosseous.
Fig. 1.19: Tibia and Fibula
Source: physioweb.org
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Craniometry (measurement of cranium), Mandibulometry (measurement of
mandible) and Somatometry (measurement of the dimensions of body) involve
different types of instruments for taking measurements depending upon its nature.
Here we will mention briefly about the instruments to be used in our list of
measurements.
Weighing machine: Standard weighing machine with a graduation of 500 grams,
portable for field purpose and stationary weighing machines are used. The zero
error should be adjusted with the knob provided. Weight of the subject with
minimum clothing is preferred and adjustment for the clothes should be made.
Martin’s Anthropometer: It is the most often used instrument in somatometry
used for taking linear measurements. The anthropometer consists of four equal
graduated segments which when joined tightly measures 200 cms. The graduation
begins at the base of the lowest segment on one side and from uppermost segment
on the other side on opposite side. The uppermost segment bears at its upper end
fixed casket, while there is another casket which can move up and down along
the oriented rod. The casket holds the cross bars which are also graduated. The
movable casket provides an elongated window on its body, through which the
graduations can be seen and upper border of this opening gives a particular
measure.
Source:www.riodb.ibase.aist.go.
Source:k3505907 www.fotosearch.com
22
Practical in Physical
Anthropology
Rod compass: The first segment of the anthropometer used as a large sliding
caliper by adjusting the crossbar is called rod compass. It is graduated in
descending order starting from the top fitted with fixed socket. It is used to
measure breadths or diameters.
Martin’s Spreading caliper: It is mainly used for taking head and face
measurements where curved areas are involved. It consists of two long arms
which are curved outwards and straight on the other end which is screwed together
so that arms can move freely. A meter scale (35cm) is fixed to one of the arms
and passes though the socket of the second arm. The screw at the back socket
provides to and fro movement to the scale. The free ends of the long arms are
provided either with blunt (used in living beings) or pointed end (used in
skeletons). Another large variety of spreading caliper having a scale of 60cm,
used for measuring pelvis is called pelvimeter.
Source: www.theapricity.com
Martin’s Sliding caliper: It consist of long straight scale graduated on both sides
and two cross bars one fixed on one end of the scale and other one parallel to the
fixed one which can slide over the scale with the help of socket provided with a
screw to be used to fix the socket at any place. Both the arms are projected to an
equal distance on both sides of the scale. The scale is graduated starting from
fixed end up to 250mm. Again from the free end it is graduated up to 50mm- this
is used for measuring depths when the movable socket is fitted on the scale in
reverse order. Sliding caliper is used to measure shorter breadths. The blunt ends
are used to measure on body (living beings) while the sharp end on bones.
Source: www.riodb.ibase.aist.go
23
Osteology and Instruments
Used
Skinfold caliper: The purpose of the skinfold caliper is to measure the thickness
of the skinfold for assessment of subcutaneous fat at different sites of the body.
Harpenden and Lange’s skinfold calipers are mostly used for the purpose. The
caliper consists of round clock like dial fitted with sturdy grip above which is an
elongated lever. The caliper at the contact surface of the arms should be kept at
a pressure of 10 gm/mm2
.
Harpenden’s skinfold caliper
Source: www.physicalcompany.co.uk
Vernier caliper: Vernier calipers give readings of high accuracy. This caliper
possesses a calibrated scale with fixed jaw and another one with a pointer that
slides along the scale. The distance between the two jaws gives the reading
depending upon its usage. Vernier calipers are used to measure internal
dimensions, external diameters and depth.
Source: www.phy.uct.ac.za
Steel tape: It is made of flexible steel graduated on both the sides wound in a
metal case from which it can be pulled out and can rewind after use. It is used for
measuring girths of different parts of body and skeleton which involves curvature.
24
Practical in Physical
Anthropology
Verificator: It is also called Gauge and is used to verify the accuracy of the
calipers. There are nine brass rods with different lengths varying from 10 to 250
mm.
Mandibulometer: A mandibulometer is a precision bone measuring (osteometric)
instrument. An anthropologist or skeletal biologist uses it to measure the human
lower jawbone. Professionals working in forensic science also use it. It consists
of one horizontal plate, one vertical plate and a protractor. The horizontal plate
serves as a base and graduated scale is there on both the sides. Near the rear end
of the base is a vertical plate which is also provided with scales. This vertical
plate is fixed with screws and it can be raised so as to suit the angle of mandible.
This angle can be measured with protractor which is fixed at the intersection of
the plates. Front side of the basal plate has a thick vertical piece, which can slide
over the surface, and used to fix mandible on the front side.
Source: www.sciencemuseum.org.uk
Suggested Reading
The list is given at the end of unit 4.
250
200
150
100
70
50
30
20
10
Source: www.oneinhundred.com
25
Osteology and Instruments
UNIT 2 CRANIOMETRY, MANDIBULOMETRY, Used
SOMATOSCOPY AND SOMATOMETRY
CRANIOMETRY AND MANDIBULOMETRY
Measurements on Cranium and Mandible
Introduction
Earlier in the unit we got familiar with the different bones of our body including
the cranium and the mandible. Craniometry deals with the scientific measurements
on human cranium. The objective behind Craniometry and Mandibulometry is
to study the form and shape of human (or Primate) cranium and mandible,
respectively. Its contribution towards identifying the age and sex of a cranium is
it’s another crucial usage. The development of various parts of human skull is
dependent on genetic, morphological and functional factors. Cranium consists
of two clear parts, brain cavity and the facial region. Craniometry includes both
these regions. The measurements can be linear, transverse, angular, arc, depth,
etc., and thus the instruments to be used should be specific depending upon the
measurement. There are measurements that are taken directly on the skull, at the
same time some are taken on the tracings of the skull. In case of direct
measurement the cranium is placed on the cushion or on the pad or mounted on
the craniophore. While taking the measurements one wonders the logic behind
them. What, where and how to measure strikes one’s mind. Every measurement
that we take has a specified landmark as well as standard technique to follow.
The landmarks are more easily located on the cranium as compared to those on
the living (somatometry). Identifying the correct landmarks and following the
standard techniques are the contributing factors which would yield best and precise
results. To identify the landmarks on skull refer to the following figures
b, Bregma – co, Coronale – d, Dakyon – ek, Ektokonchion – eu, Eurion – fmo, Frontomalare
orbitate- fmt, Frontomolare temporale – ft, Frontotemporale – gn, Gnathion – go, Gonion – id,
Infradentale – idd, Infradentale dentale – ju, Jugale – la,Lacrimale – mf, Maxillofrontale – ml,
Mentale – n, Nasion – ns, Nasospinale – or, Orbitale – prl, Prominentia laterale – pr, Prosthion –
prd, Prosthion dentale – rhi, Rhionion – st, Stephanion – zy, Zygion – zm, Zygomaxillare
Source: www.cleber.com. br BIDEGAIN,Cléber; CARVALHO, Marília. Manual para estudos
craniométricos e cranioscópicos.pp:13, Fig. II,6
26
Practical in Physical
Anthropology
alv, Alveolon – ast, Asterion – ba, Basion – ekm, Ektomalare – enm, Endonmlare – eu, Eurion –
ho, Hormion – i, Inion – ms, Mastoideale – o, Opisthion – op, Opisthokranion – ol, Orale – po,
Porion – sphba, Sphenobasion – sta, Staphylion – ste, Stenion – zy, Zygion – zm, Zygomaxillare.
Source: www.cleber.com.br BIDEGAIN,Cléber; CARVALHO, Marília. Manual para estudos
craniométricos e cranioscópicos.pp: 9 Fig. II,1
27
Craniometry,
Mandibulometry,
Somatoscopy and
Somatometry
PRACTICE 1
To take the following measurements on the three crania provided.
Maximum Cranial Length
Maximum Cranial Breadth
Least Frontal Breadth
Length of the Foramen Magnum
Maximum Cranial Length (g-op): It measures the straight distance between
landmarks glabella (g) and opisthocranion (op).
Glabella (g): It is the point on the protuberance of the lower forehead above
nasal root and between the eyebrow ridges intersected by mid-sagittal plane, i.e.,
it is the most anterior point in the median plane between the brow ridges.
Opisthocranion (op): It is the most posterior point on the posterior protuberance
of the occipital bone of the head in the mid-sagittal plane, i.e., it is the point on
the back of the head, farthest away from the glabella in the median plane. It is
not an anatomically fixed point.
Instrument: Spreading caliper, skin marking pencil.
Method: Place the skull on the cushion with norma lateralis (preferably left side)
upwards. Keep the tip of the left arm of the spreading caliper on glabella and
move the tip of right arm of the caliper on the occipital bone in mid-sagittal
plane, and record the maximum reading.
Precautions: Take care that the tip of right arm of the caliper is in the mid- sagittal
plane.
While taking the measurement, the cranium should be in norma
lateralis position.
Opisthocranion is the farthest point on the occipital bone in midsagittal
plane, located by measuring the Maximum Cranial Length
itself.
Maximum Cranial Breadth (eu-eu): It measures the maximum breadth taken
at right angles to the mid-sagittal plane between the two euryon landmarks.
Euryon (eu): It is the lateral most point on the lateral wall of the skull on the
parietals, i.e., sides of the head. Again, it not an anatomically fixed point.
Instrument: Spreading caliper, skin marking pencil, spirit, cotton.
Method: Place the cranium on a cushion with norma verticalis facing upwards.
Now, hold the instrument in such a manner that the line joining its two tips is at
right angle to the mid sagittal plane. How will you hold the instrument? Hold the
arms of the caliper horizontally on the parietal bones while standing behind the
skull. With the instrument in that position the maximum breadth is obtained by
moving the two arms in different directions- forwards, backwards, upwards and
downwards and maximum reading is recorded.
Precautions: The maximum measurement should be taken wherever found as
euryon is not anatomically fixed point.
28
Practical in Physical
Anthropology
Inferior temporal point should be avoided.
Note that the two ends of caliper lie in a horizontal plane at right angles to midsagittal
plane.
Least Frontal Breadth (ft-ft): It measures the straight distance between two
fronto temporale (ft) landmarks.
Fronto temporal (ft): It is the most projecting and inward point of the superior temporal
line i.e., the most median point on the incurve of the superior temporal line.
Instrument: Sliding caliper, skin marking pencil.
Method: Place the cranium on the cushion with norma frontalis facing you. Move
the two ends of the caliper on the temporal crests of the two sides of skull to
locate the frontotemporale points to record the minimum breadth.
Precautions: Take care that the linear distance between the two temporal lines
on the forehead is measured.
The two fronto temporale landmarks should be symmetrically
placed with reference to the median line.
Length of the Foramen Magnum (ba-o): It measures the straight distance
between basion (ba) and opisthion (o).
Basion (ba): It is the point where the anterior margin of the foramen magnum is
cut by the mid-sagittal plane. This point lies exactly opposite to the opisthion.
For height measurements, basion is defined as the lowest point on the anterior
margin of foramen magnum in the mid-sagittal plane.
Opisthion (o): It is the point where the posterior margin of the foramen magnum
cuts the mid sagittal plane. This point lies exactly opposite to the basion.
Instrument: Sliding caliper, skin marking pencil.
Method: Place the skull in such a way that its Norma basalis is facing upwards,
you will realise that skull is actually upside down. The end of the fixed crossbar
is placed against basion and then the movable crossbar is slided over to touch
the opisthion point.
Precautions: Note that the ends of the instrument must rest on the margins of
foramen magnum.
Practice 1
Measurement (landmarks) (Units) Cranium 1 Cranium 2 Cranium 3
Maximum Cranial Length (g-op) (cms)
Maximum Cranial Breadth (eu-eu) (cms)
Least Frontal Breadth (ft-ft) (cms)
Length of the Foramen Magnum (ba-o) (cms)
29
Craniometry,
Mandibulometry,
Somatoscopy and
Somatometry
PRACTICE 2
To take the following measurements on the three crania provided
Nasal Height
Nasal Breadth
Length of the Nasal Bone
Nasal Height (n-ns): It measures the straight distance between the nasion (n)
and nasospinale (ns).
Nasion (n): It is the point on the nasal root intersected by mid-sagittal plane or
the meeting point of the fronto-nasal and inter-nasal suture. Nasal root is not the
depression of the nose but at the nasao-frontal suture which can be felt by slightly
probing the root of the nose. i.e., just apply a moderate pressure below your
glabella and you will notice a sharp kink. Note that nasion usually lies in the
level of the medial end of the eye-brows ridges mostly on the lower margins and
not at the height of the eye-brows ridges.
Nasospinale (ns): It is the deepest point on the lower margin of the pyriform
aperture projected in the mid-sagittal plane i.e., the point where a line touching
the lower margin of the nasal aperture crosses the mid-sagittal plane. When the
nasal spine is not too strongly developed, this landmark may be determined by
drawing a straight line touching the lowest points of the margins of right and left
pyriform apertures. Nasospinale lies at the point where this line is cut by midsagittal
plane. When the spine is strongly developed, the point tends to lie on the
spine itself. In that case the point is marked on the lateral side of the spine. It is
recommended that reading should be taken on both the sides and that a mention
of same be made.
Instrument: Sliding caliper, skin marking pencil, spirit, cotton.
Method: Place the sharp ends of the cross bar on the nasion and then slide the
movable crossbar so that it touches nasospinale.
Precautions: The landmark nasion should be in mid sagittal plane.
Nasal Breadth: It measures the maximum breadth between the lateral margins
of the pyriform aperture.
Instrument: Sliding caliper, skin marking pencil.
Method: Place the cranium on the cushion with norma frontalis facing upwards.
Also note that the measurement is taken from above. The fixed crossbar is held
tangent to the left border of nasal aperture, taking care that it is parallel to the
median line. The movable casket is moved tangent to the other border. Hold the
two points of the caliper on the sharp lateral margins of the aperture when they
are most laterally arched and record the measurement.
Precautions: This measurement must be taken horizontally i.e., at right angles
to mid-sagittal plane.
Length of the Nasal Bone (n-rhi): It measures the straight distance between
nasion (n) and rhinion (rhi).
Nasion (n): It is the point on the nasal root intersected by mid-sagittal plane or
the meeting point of the fronto-nasal and inter-nasal suture. Nasal root is not the
30
Practical in Physical
Anthropology
depression of the nose but at the nasao-frontal suture which can be felt by slightly
probing the root of the nose. i.e., just apply a moderate pressure below your
glabella and you will notice a sharp kink. Note that nasion usually lies in the
level of the medial end of the eye-brows ridges mostly on the lower margins and
not at the height of the eye-brows ridges.
Rhinion (rhi): It is the lowest point on the internasal suture in the mid-sagittal
plane.
Instrument: Sliding caliper, skin marking pencil.
Method: Place the sharp end of the fixed crossbar on the nasion and then slide
the movable crossbar to the rhinion. Record the reading on the scale.
Precautions: Note that the landmark rhinion is in mid sagittal plane.
If the nasal bones are broken or otherwise defective, then this
measurement should not be taken.
Practice 2
Measurement (Landmarks) (Units) Cranium1 Cranium 2 Cranium 3
Nasal height (n-ns) (cms)
Nasal breadth (cms)
Length of the nasal bone (n-rhi) (cms)
31
Craniometry,
Mandibulometry,
Somatoscopy and
Somatometry
PRACTICE 3
To take the following measurements on the three crania provided
Facial length or Facial depth
Upper Facial Height
Morphological Facial Height
Horizontal Circumference of Cranium
Bizygomatic Breadth
Facial length or Facial depth (ba-pr): It measures straight distance between
the basion (ba) and prosthion (pr).
Basion (ba): It is the point where the anterior margin of the foramen magnum is
cut by the mid-sagittal plane. This point lies exactly opposite the opisthion. For
height measurements, basion is defined as the lowest point on the anterior margin
of foramen magnum in mid-sagittal plane.
Prosthion (pr): It is the point which lies on the alveolar margin of the upper jaw
in the mid-sagittal plane, projecting most anteriorly between the two central
incisors. This point lies on the most anterior side. Actually you can also locate it
as the lowest point of the intermaxillary suture on alveolar border between the
two middle incisors. In case of defective alveolar margin, this measurement should
not be taken.
Instrument: Sliding caliper, skin marking pencil.
Method: Place the cranium on cushion with norma basalis facing upwards. Then
the fixed end of the caliper is placed on prosthion while the movable crossbar is
drawn to the level of basion and record the reading.
Precautions: Locate prosthion carefully as the point lies on the most anterior
side.
Upper Facial Height (n-pr): It measures straight distance between nasion (n)
and prosthion (pr).
Nasion (n): It is the point on the nasal root intersected by mid-sagittal plane or
the meeting point of the fronto-nasal and inter-nasal suture. Nasal root is not the
depression of the nose but at the nasao-frontal suture which can be felt by slightly
probing the root of the nose. i.e., just apply a moderate pressure below your
glabella and you will notice a sharp kink. Note that nasion usually lies in the
level of the medial end of the eye-brows mostly on the lower margins and not at
the height of the eye-brow ridges.
Prosthion (pr): It is the point which lies on the alveolar margin of the upper jaw
in the mid-sagittal plane, projecting most anteriorly between the two central
incisors. This point lies on the most anterior side. Actually you can also locate it
as the lowest point of the intermaxillary suture on alveolar border between the
two middle incisors. Incase of defective alveolar margin, this measurement should
not be taken.
Instrument: Sliding caliper, skin marking pencil.
32
Practical in Physical
Anthropology
Method: Rest the cranium on its occipital region with the norma frontalis facing
upwards. The sharp end of the fixed crossbar of the instrument is placed on the
nasion and then the movable crossbar is slided to touch the prosthion point with
its sharp end.
Precautions: Locate prosthion carefully as the point lies on the most anterior
side.
Horizontal Circumference of Cranium (g-op-g): It measures the horizontal
circumference of the cranium from glabella to glabella through opisthocranion.
Glabella (g): It is the point on the protuberance of the lower forehead above
nasal root and between the eyebrow ridges intersected by mid-sagittal plane i.e.,
it is the most anterior point in the median plane between the brow ridges.
Opisthocranion (op): It is the most posterior point on the posterior protuberance
of the occipital bone of the head in the mid-sagittal plane i.e., it is the point on
the back of the head, farthest away from the glabella in the median plane. It is
not an anatomically fixed point.
Instrument: Flexible Steel Tape, Spreading Caliper, skin marking pencil.
Method: In order to take this measurement first we need to determine
opisthocranion landmark. This we shall do with use of spreading caliper as we
did earlier while measuring maximum cranial length (Practice 1). After we have
determined and marked opisthocranion, place the skull on the cushion with norma
verticalis facing upwards. Now place the free end of tape over glabella and pass
the tape over the superciliary ridges in front and opisthocranion behind and back
to glabella, and maximum reading is recorded.
Precaution: The tape should pass over opisthocranion.
Morphological Facial Height (n-gn): It measures the straight distance between
the nasion (n) and gnathion (gn).
Nasion (n): It is the point on the nasal root intersected by mid-sagittal plane or
the meeting point of the fronto-nasal and inter-nasal suture. Nasal root is not the
depression of the nose but at the nasao-frontal suture which can be felt by slightly
probing the root of the nose. i.e., just apply a moderate pressure below your
glabella and you will notice a sharp kink. Note that nasion usually lies in the
level of the medial end of the eye-brows mostly on the lower margins and not at
the height of the eye-brows.
Gnathion (gn): It is the lowest point on the lower margin of the mandible in the
mid-sagittal plane.
Instrument: Sliding caliper.
Method: Keep the skull on the cushion. Place the tip of sliding caliper at the
gnathion, and then slowly slide the moveable end superiorly until it contacts
nasion. Record the distance.
Precautions: Care should be taken to identify nasion correctly and not as
depression on the nose.
33
Craniometry,
Mandibulometry,
Somatoscopy and
Somatometry
Bizygomatic Breadth (zy-zy) : It measures the straight distance between the
two zygion (zy) landmarks i.e., the most laterally placed point on the zygomatic
bone.
Zygion (zy): It is the lateral most point on the zygomatic arch, one on each side.
Anatomically it is not fixed point.
Instrument: Sliding or Spreading caliper, skin marking pencil.
Method: Rest the cranium on its base facing you. Move the two ends of the
caliper forwards and backwards on the two zygomatic arches to obtain the
maximum value.
Precautions: The two ends of the caliper should be in one horizontal plane and
it’s joint in the mid-sagittal plane.
Practice 3
Measurement (Landmarks) (Units) Cranium1 Cranium 2 Cranium 3
Facial length/facial depth (ba-pr) (cms)
Upper facial height (n-r) (cms)
Horizontal Circumference of Cranium
(g-op-g) (cms)
Morphological facial height (n-gn) (cms)
Bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy) (cms)
34
Practical in Physical
Anthropology PRACTICE 4
To take the following measurements on the three crania provided
Bimaxillary Breadth or Breadth of the Upper Jaw
Bi-Auricular Breadth
Palatal Length
Palatal Breadth
Bimaxillary Breadth or Breadth of the Upper Jaw (zm-zm): It measures the
straight distance between the two zygomaxillare (zm).
Zygomaxillare (zm): It is the deepest external and lowermost point on the
zygomaxillary suture.
Instrument: Siding caliper, skin marking pencil.
Method: Place one pointed end of fixed crossbar of caliper on one zygomaxillare
and then slide the other end touching the other zygomaxillare and record the
reading.
Precautions: The landmark should be identified correctly.
Bi-Auricular Breadth (au-au): It measures the straight distance between the
two auriculare landmarks (au).
Auriculare (au): It is the point where the perpendicular on the ear opening
(external auditory meatus) crosses the root of the zygomatic arc. It lies a few
mm. above porion landmark.
Instrument: Sliding or Spreading caliper, skin marking pencil, spirit, cotton.
Method: This reading can be taken more conveniently with spreading caliper by
placing the cranium in norma verticalis or norma basalis. Place the end of left
arm of the caliper on one auriculare and guard it with your thumb and forefinger
of left arm, and then place the end of right arm of caliper on other auriculare.
Precautions: The reading should be taken from the front side of the skull.
Palatal Length (ol-sta): It measures the straight distance between orale (ol) and
staphylion (sta).
Orale (ol): It is the midpoint which lies on the anterior margin of the palate. To
determine this point draw a tangent joining the two posterior margins of the
middle incisors. Orale lies where this line cuts the mid-sagittal plane.
Staphylion (sta): It is the point where a straight line joining the deepest notches
or curves of the posterior margins of the palate cut the mid-sagittal plane.
Instrument: Vernier or Sliding caliper, skin marking pencil.
Method: Place the cranium on the cushion upside down, in such a way that
norma basalis is upwards. Locate the two anatomical points, then place the fixed
end of the crossbar on one landmark and slide the movable crossbar to the other
point and take the reading.
Precautions: Take care that the skull is placed on the cushion upside down, in
such a way that norma basalis is upwards.
35
Craniometry,
Mandibulometry,
Somatoscopy and
Somatometry
Palatal Breadth (enm-enm): It measures the straight distance between the middle
of the inner margin of the alveolar on the second molar i.e., endomolare (enm) to
endomolare (enm)
Endomolare (enm): It is the point located in the middle of the inner margin of
the alveolar process opposite to the second upper molar in man.
Instrument: Sliding caliper, skin marking pencil.
Method: Place the cranium on the cushion upside down, with norma basalis
upwards. Place the end of fixed crossbar against one endomolare, then slide the
movable crossbar to touch other endomolare to take the reading. It is difficult to
take this measurement on skull without teeth, absence of which changes the
shape of alveolar margin.
Precautions: Locate the points carefully in the absence of teeth.
Practice 4
Measurement (Landmarks) (Units) Cranium1 Cranium 2 Cranium 3
Bimaxillary breadth (zm-zm) (cms)
Bi-auricular breadth (au-au) (cms)
Palatal length (ol-sta) (cms)
Palatal breadth (enm-enm) (cms)
You can refer to these figures while taking the following measurements:
Maximum Cranial Breadth
Bizygomatic breadth
Source: www.redwoods.edu
Mandibulometry
Measurements taken on mandible are called Mandibulometry.
36
Practical in Physical
Anthropology PRACTICE 5
To take the following measurements on the mandible provided
Bicondylar Breadth
Bigonial Breadth
Height of Ramus or Condylar Height
Mandibular length or Length of the Lower Jaw:
Bicondylar Breadth (cdl-cdl): It measures the straight distance between two
condylion laterale (cdl).
Condylion laterale (cdl): It is the most lateral point of the condyle of the mandible.
Instrument: Sliding caliper, skin marking pencil.
Method: Hold the mandible in your left hand and adjust the inner border of the
crossbar on the lateral ends of condyles. Place the end of the fixed crossbar
against the most laterally placed point of one of the condyles of the mandible.
Slide the movable crossbar to the other condyle to take the measurement.
Precautions: Only the most lateral points on the condyles should be used for the
measurements.
Bigonial Breadth (go-go): It measures the straight distance between the two
gonia (go).
Gonion (go): It is the most posterior, inferior and lateral point of the angle of the
lower jaw or mandible made by the basal margin of the body and posterior margin
of the ramus.
Instrument: Sliding caliper, skin marking pencil.
Method: Place the mandible inverted on the cushion and adjust the inner borders
of the crossbar of the caliper on the lateral surface of the caliper. Place the end of
the fixed crossbar against the most laterally placed point of one of the gonion.
Slide the movable crossbar to the other gonion to take the measurement.
Precautions: The measurement should be taken vertically after marking the
gonions correctly.
Height of Ramus or Codylar Height: It measures the straight distance between
gonion (go) and highest point on the mandibular capitulum.
Gonion (go): It is the most posterior, inferior and lateral point of the angle of the
lower jaw or mandible made by the basal margin of the body and posterior margin
of the ramus.
Instrument: Sliding caliper or Mandibulometer, skin marking pencil.
Method: Place the fixed end of the crossbar on the on top of the condyle. Now
adjust the movable crossbar on the gonion and note the reading.
Mandibular length or Length of the Lower Jaw: It measures the straight
distance from the most anterior point of mental eminence (in mid-sagittal plane)
to a tangent drawn to the two gonion (go).
Instrument: Sliding caliper or Mandibulometer, skin marking pencil.
37
Craniometry,
Mandibulometry,
Somatoscopy and
Somatometry
Method: Put a thin needle in a straight line crossing the two gonion points. Take
the measurement in mid-sagittal plane from posterior margin of the chin to the
needle to measure mandibular length.
Precautions: The needle should be kept horizontally straight and the measurement
should be taken at the right angle to the needle.
gn, Gnathion – go, Gonion – id, Infradentale – kr, Koronion – ml, Mentale – pg, Pogonion – prl,
Prominentia laterale
Source: www.cleber.com.br BIDEGAIN,Cléber; CARVALHO, Marília. Manual para estudos
craniométricos e cranioscópicos.pp:17, Fig. II,10
Measuring Height of Ramus and Mandibular Length using Mandibulometer:
Method: Place the mandible on the horizontal movable plate of mandibulometer.
Adjust the vertical movable plate in such a manner that it forms a tangent to the
posterior margins of the two ramus.
Slide the horizontal plate so that the fixed vertical plate in front touches the most
anterior point of mental eminence.
Now slide the small horizontal plate (adjusted in the movable vertical plate) so
that it touches the highest point on the condyles.
Precaution: Height of ramus is taken from the scale given on vertical movable
plate. and
Mandibular length is taken from the scale given on the horizontal movable plate.
Look at the figure below, this is how you should keep the mandible while taking
measurements.
38
Practical in Physical
Anthropology
Measurement on Mandible
Source: www.pales-tech.com
Practice 5
Measurement (Landmarks) (Units) Mandible 1 Mandible 2 Mandible 3
Bicondylar breadth (cdl-cdl) (cms)
Bigonial breadth (go-go) (cms)
Height of the ramus (cms)
Mandibular length (cms)
39
Craniometry,
Mandibulometry,
Somatoscopy and
Somatometry
SOMATOSCOPY
Introduction
When you look around yourself casually, did you realise how much information
you get of a person just at a glance? It is incredible to discover so much has been
received and retained by your brain about physical features, clothes etc. of a
person. Be it colour of hair, height, physique, type of nose, shape of the face, etc.
are just registered in fraction of a second. This very perception plays a very
important role in identifying a person; be it the case of investigation or racial
classification. There are many physical traits which cannot be easily measured;
these are best observed and described qualitatively. Most somatoscopic traits
show marked geographical variation.
Somatoscopy concerns the systematic visual observation of physical features of
various parts of human body for accurate description. These are qualitative in
nature, hence descriptive in approach. To standardise the approach, many charts
have been prepared by different scholars for determining the colour of hair, skin,
eye, etc. Not only that, these charts are not available, but most of the features are
described by simple descriptive terms which have actually become standard.
Skin colour: Did you realise that our skin colour is not uniform all over the
body, number of physiological factors like area of arterial or venous blood supply
and environmental factors like exposure to sunlight are related to the expression
of skin colour. There is difference in the skin colour of exposed and unexposed
part of our body. The skin shows two types of pigmentation, one is inherited and
the other is climatic (which is tanned due to exposure). Therefore, skin colour is
considered at two sites; forehead or cheek (exposed to sun) and inner side of the
upper arm (unexposed to sun).
Broca (1865), Luschan (1916), Hintze (1927) and Fritsch (1916) have given
different colour charts and the skin colour is determined in consultation with
these charts. In the absence of these charts, the skin colour is described using
descriptive terms like light yellow brown or dark brown or pale white, etc. In
reality, skin colour depends on the quantity of melanin pigment and the skin
colour is best understood by the variants of brown like light brown, medium
brown and dark brown with medium brown having the maximum variety. The
skin colour should be observed in normal daylight not in direct sunlight.
Hair colour and form: When you are looking at anybody’s head hair so many
features come into note. These are the colour, quantity, form; texture all forming
components of somatoscopy. Hair is mostly studied for colour and form. Fischer
and Saller (1928) have used natural hair to make hair colour chart. The colour of
the hair should be examined in natural light. Care should be taken that colour is
not dyed, in such cases the colour at root hair is to be taken as the colour of the
hair. The colour of the hair is affected by age, oil and perfume too. Among the
Indians the range of the hair colour would be categorized as light brown, medium
brown, dark brown and black.
As far as hair form is concerned it can be broadly categorized as straight, wavy
and woolly hair. Now straight hair can be stretched, smooth or flat wavy; Wavy
hair can be broad wavy, narrow wavy, curly wavy; and Woolly hair can be frizzly,
widely knit, closely knit, filfil or spiral.
40
Practical in Physical
Anthropology
Pluck the hair from the scalp, it gives the right observation.
Eyes: Eyes play an important role in looks of any person. Somatoscopic features
considered in case of eyes are colour of the iris, eye fold and direction of the
eyes. The colour of the eye (actually the iris) has been described in various charts.
It varies from black brown or dark brown or brown or light brown or greenish or
grey or light grey or dark blue or blue or light blue or crimson red. As far as eye
folds are concerned they are present or absent. Horizontal, slanting (downward)
or oblique (upward) describe the direction of the eye. To get best results, stand 1-
2 feet away from the subject in such a manner that the subject gets enough light
on the eyes and avoid direct sunlight.
Nose: There are number of morphological features of nose. Simple descriptive
terms are used to describe nose parts like root, bridge, septum, tip and wings.
The tip of the nose can be upwards or downwards and the profile could be rounded
at point or fully rounded or flat. The root of the nose can be recorded as narrow,
medium or broad; from the side view may appear depressed which again may be
shallow, medium or deep or absent. The nasal bridge may be recorded as straight,
concave-slight, medium, markedly, convex- slight, medium, markedly or wavyslight,
medium, markedly. The size of the nasal bridge may be narrow, medium
or broad.
Lips: The thickness of the membranous lip is studied with best observations in
profile view. It may be thin, medium, thick and puffy or everted. Now what is an
everted lip? The upper membranous lip is puffy with convex profile, above which
the integument lips are deeply concave.
Face: Size- height of the face (long, medium or short) and diameter of the face
(narrow, medium, broad or very broad), shape, malar prominence and prognathism
are used to describe face. The shape can be oval or elliptical, round or square or
quadrangular or flat. Prominence of the cheek bone (malar) is an important feature;
it is described as absent, slight, moderate or marked. Alveolar protrusion of face
is called prognathism. Profile view is best to ascertain it to be slight, moderate or
marked.
41
Craniometry,
Mandibulometry,
Somatoscopy and
Somatometry
PRACTICE 1
Record the somatoscopy observation on eight people for following traits
Somatoscopy trait 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Skin colour
Hair colour
Hair form
Eye colour
Eyefold
Eye direction
Nose root
Nasal bridge
Nasal septum
Nose tip
Nasal wings
Lip thickness
Face size
Face diameter
Face shape
Face prominence of cheekbone
Face prognathism
42
Practical in Physical
Anthropology SOMATOMETRY
Somatometry is made of two words ‘somato’ which means living and ‘metric’
which refers to measurement, so in simple terms it means measurement of living
beings. Therefore, Somatometry a division of anthropometry is defined as a
systematic technique to measure living body including head and face.
Anthropologists have formulated number of measurements for describing the
morphology of man. These measurements are not arbitrary but are based on
anatomical landmarks and have been in use for hundreds of years. They are
useful in comparing various kinds of men living in different geographical regions,
i.e., for racial comparisons or to study variations in body types. Physical growth
of children is studied on the basis of their body measurements. The nutritional
status of young and adults is also assessed with the help of these measurements.
It also facilitates in the determination of certain physiological functions like vital
capacity, basal metabolic rate, etc. Data generated on the basis of anthropometry
surveys of populations has been an asset for designing proper equipment for use
in industry and defence purposes, spaceships, garments, etc. The anthropometric
surveys also provide norms of the physique of any population and trends of
changes in morphological traits.
Techniques
Minimum clothes by the subject should be worn while taking the measurement
as it will facilitate in locating the landmarks. There are certain positions in the
human body which hold importance while taking measurements. Frankfort
horizontal plane is one of them. Frankfort Horizontal plane was established in
1984 at the World Congress on Anthropology in Frankfurt, Germany. This plane
is used to orient a human skull or head such that the plane is horizontal. Eye-ear
plane, Frankfort horizontal, Frankfort plane are its other names. It is a horizontal
plane which is characterised in profile by a line which is the lowest point on the
margin of the orbit of the eye (lower margin of the left orbit) and the highest
point on the margin of the auditory meatus (External auditory canal).
Source: www.jsn.sagepub.com
43
Craniometry,
Mandibulometry,
Somatoscopy and
Somatometry
The head of the subject should rest without any
strain in the eye-ear plane or F-H plane i.e. tragion
and right orbitale must lie in the same plane. All
measurements except those concerning mid
sagittal plane should be taken on the right side of
the body because it is easier to work with
instruments with right hand. Some researchers
have recommended all measurements except
those involving the mid-sagittal plane should be
taken on left side of the body in order to avoid
any occupational exaggeration or deformity.
Mid-Sagittal plane is vertical plane
which passes through the body in such a
way that it is parallel to the median plane.
Median plane is a plane which passes
longitudinally through the middle of the
body from front to back in such a way
that it divides the body into right and left
halves. This figure shows the different
planes of human body.
Source: www. img.tfd.com
Mid sagittal plane
Source:www.img.tfd.com
Source: www.isn.sagep46.com
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Practical in Physical
Anthropology
For each measurement taken certain precautions need to be followed which have
been mentioned in method of measurements.
Standard positions
Source: www.keywordpicture.com
45
Craniometry,
Mandibulometry,
Somatoscopy and
Somatometry
PRACTICE 1
Record the following measurements on four subjects
Body weight
Stature
Sitting height
Head length
Head breadth
Bizygomatic breadth
Body weight: Weight should be taken by means of standard weighing machine
with fine accuracy. The weight should be taken with minimum clothes and barefoot.
Body weight is measured in kilograms, which gives an idea of body mass.
Instrument: Weighing machine
Method: Adjust the needle of the weighing scale to remove the zero error.
Ask the subject to stand with equal weight on both the feet. The head of the
subject should be forward. Note the reading on the weighing scale when the
needle is stationary.
Precautions: Take care that the subject is wearing minimum number of clothes.
Weight should not be taken right after taking meals.
Make proper adjustment for clothes worn by the subject at the time
of taking weight.
It is recommended that at the time of recording weight of the clothes
should also be noted.
Stature (floor-v): It measures the vertical distance from the standing floor to the
vertex.
Vertex (v): It is the highest point on the head when the head is in the FrankfurtHorizontal
(FH) plane, also known as eye-ear plane. Vertex is not an anatomically
fixed point and is dependent on the orientation of the head.
Instrument: Anthropometer
Method: Ask the subject to stand erect, barefoot on a level floor against the wall
with her/his back and buttocks touching the wall. Take care that the heels are
touching the wall and toes are at an angle of 45° to each other. The shoulders
should not be raised upwards. The arms should be in standard arm hanging
position and the palms of the hands should touch the thighs. Place the
anthropometer rod on the back of the subject if the vertical wall is not available.
The head of the subject must rest without any strain in the eye-ear plane or FH
plane, i.e., tragion and the right orbitale must lie in the same horizontal plane.
Now with the position of the subject set, you stand on the right side of the subject
with anthropometer in the median sagittal plane of the subject and allow moving
cross-bar to touch the vertex lightly. Note that the anthropometer is in vertical
position.
Precautions:The subject is barefoot.
The heels, back and buttocks of the subject should touching the wall.
The toes are at an angle of 45°.
46
Practical in Physical
Anthropology
The arms should be in standard arm hanging position.
The head of the subject should be in eye-ear plane.
The face of the subject should be stretched adjusting the mastoid
process.
Source: www.ovrt.nist.gov
Sitting height (sitting surface-v): It is the vertical distance of the vertex from
the plane of sitting surface of the subject when stretched i.e., when the vertebral
column is stretched to the maximum. .
Vertex (v): It is the highest point on the head when the head is in the FrankfurtHorizontal
(FH) plane, also known as eye-ear plane. Vertex is not an anatomically
fixed point and is dependent on the orientation of the head.
Instrument: Anthropometer
Method: Ask the subject to sit on a horizontal surface preferably on a table 30-40
cms high. Orient his/her head in eye-ear plane and the body stretched to the
maximum. Note that the shoulder should run parallel, the thighs should be almost
horizontal and the legs hanging from the table with back of the knee touching
the vertical surface of the table and also don’t allow the knees to bend. The
hands should rest on the thighs with palms facing down. Anthropometer should
be held at the back of the subject aligned to the vertebral column and bring down
the movable cross bar on to the vertex and note the reading.
Precautions: The subject should be sitting erect with legs hanging freely from
the table at an angle of 90°.
Head should be oriented in eye-ear plane.
The hands should be resting with palm facing the thighs.
47
Craniometry,
Mandibulometry,
Somatoscopy and
Somatometry
Source: www.ovrt.nist.gov
Head length (g-op): It is the linear distance between glabella(g) and opisthcranion
(op) i.e. the most projecting point on the dorsal surface of the head in the midsagittal
plane.
Glabella (g): It is the point on the protuberance of the lower forehead above
nasal root and between the eyebrow ridges intersected by mid-sagittal plane i.e.,
it is the most anterior point in the median plane between the eye brows.
Opisthcranion (op): It is the most posterior point on the posterior protuberance
of the head in the mid-sagittal plane i.e., it is the point on the back of the head,
farthest away from the glabella in the median plane. It is not an anatomically
fixed point.
Instrument: Spreading caliper (with blunt ends), skin marking pencil.
Method: Hold the left arm of the caliper on the glabella and move the right arm
up and down on the back of the head in the mid sagittal line, till you get the
maximum reading in the scale. That is the maximum head length.
Precautions: Hold the instrument in such a manner that the tips of the caliper
are free to touch the head.
Undue pressure should not be applied while taking the
measurements.
Source:www.theapricity.com
48
Practical in Physical
Anthropology
Head breadth (eu-eu): It measures the straight distance between the two eurya
(eu), i.e., maximum breadth taken at right angles to mid-sagittal plane wherever
found.
Euryon (eu): It is the lateral most point on the lateral wall of the head, i.e. sides
of the head. Again it is not an anatomically fixed point.
Instrument: Spreading caliper with blunt ends.
Method: Stand behind or in front of the subject and hold the arms of the spreading
caliper in such a manner that the joint of the caliper is in the mid-sagittal plane of
the head. Now slide the tips of the caliper from forward to backwards and vice
versa in zigzag manner starting with smaller and gradually to bigger circles till
you get maximum reading on the scale.
Precautions:Note that the line joining the tips of the caliper must be at right
angles to the mid-sagittal plane.
Source: www.theapricity.com
Bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy): It measures the straight distance between the two
zygia (zy) landmarks i.e., the most lateral points on the zygomatic arch. The
greatest breadth of the zygomatic arch is found near the ear and not on the cheek.
Zygion (zy): It is the lateral most point on the zygomatic arch, one on each side.
Anatomically it is not a fixed point.
Instrument: Spreading caliper with blunt ends.
Method: Hold the two tips of the arms of the caliper between the thumb and first
finger, about 2 cms away from the tragus and slide the tip slowly over the
zygomatic arch in such a manner that the thumb touches the upper margin and
the first finger the lower margin of the zygomatic bone. Record the maximum
reading.
Precautions: Note that the skin has not been displaced while recording the
measurement.
The joint of the caliper must lie in the mid-sagittal plane.
49
Craniometry,
Mandibulometry,
Somatoscopy and
Somatometry
Source:www.amazonaws.com Source:www./ejo.oxfordjournals.org
Practice 1
Measurements (landmarks) (units) Subject Subject Subject Subject
1 2 3 4
Body weight (kg)
Stature ( floor-v) (cms)
Sitting height (table surface-v) (cms)
Head length (g-op) (cms)
Head breadth (eu-eu) (cms)
Bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy) (cms)
50
Practical in Physical
Anthropology PRACTICE 2
Record the following measurements on four subjects.
Nasal length
Nasal breadth
Nasal height
Biacromial breadth
Bitrochanteric breadth
Nasal length (n-prn): It is the straight distance between nasion to pronasale.
Nasion (n): It is the point on the nasal root intersected by mid-sagittal plane.
Nasal root is not the depression of the nose but at the intersection of inter-nasal
suture and fronto-nasal suture which can be felt by slightly probing the root of
the nose. i.e., just apply a moderate pressure below your glabella and you will
notice a sharp kink. Note that nasion usually lies in the level of the medial end of
the eye-brows mostly on the lower margins and not at the height of the eyebrows.
Pronasale (prn): It is the most anteriorly placed point on the tip of the nose in the
mid-sagittal plane.
Instrument: Sliding caliper (with blunt ends), skin marking pencil, spirit, cotton.
Method: Place the fixed end of the caliper on the nasion. Slide the movable end
of the crossbar on the pronasale and record the reading.
Precautions: Note the two landmarks are in the mid-sagittal plane.
Nasal breadth (al-al): It is the straight distance from one alare to the other alare,
i.e., the most lateral points on the nasal wings.
Alare (al): It is the lateral most point on the outer surface of the nasal wing on
either side.
Instrument: Sliding caliper (with blunt ends).
Method: Hold the caliper transversely, right. Now hold the fixed crossbar of the
caliper on the outer surface of the right nasal wing of the subject, supported by
your left index finger, and touch the left nasal wing with the movable crossbar.
Record the reading on the scale.
Precautions: Take care that you don’t press the wings too much with the caliper.
Take the reading when the subject is breathing normally.
Nasal height (n-sn): It measures the straight distance between nasion and
subnasale.
Nasion (n): It is the point on the nasal root intersected by mid-sagittal plane.
Nasal root is not the depression of the nose but at the at the intersection of internasal
suture and fronto-nasal suture which can be felt by slightly probing the
root of the nose, i.e., just apply a moderate pressure below your glabella and you
will notice a sharp kink. Note that nasion usually lies in the level of the medial
end of the eye-brows mostly on the lower margins and not at the height of the
eye-brows.
Subnasale: It is the point where the lower margin of the nasal septum (between
the nostrils) meets the integument of the upper lip. This point should be sought
where the tangent drawn to the nasal septum meets the upper lip.
51
Craniometry,
Mandibulometry,
Somatoscopy and
Somatometry
Instrument: Sliding caliper (with blunt ends), skin marking pencil, spirit, cotton.
Method: Hold the sliding caliper in your right hand in such a manner that the
lower arm of the caliper touches subnasale and the upper arm of the caliper is
held between thumb and first finger on nasion.
Precautions: Note the nasion is in the mid-sagittal plane.
Biacromial breadth (a-a) It measures the straight distance between the two
acromion landmarks.
Acromion (a): It is the most lateral point on the lateral margin of the acromial
process when the subject stands in normal position with his arms hanging by the
sides. Trace with index finger along the spine of the scapula unto the lateral edge
of the acromial process i.e., from sternal end to lateral wards, take the most
lateral point.
Instrument used: Rod compass (the first segment of Anthropometer with adjusted
crossbars), skin marking pencil.
Method: Stand behind the subject. Now locate the acromion and place the inner
side of the fixed crossbar on one acromion while sliding casket with crossbar is
drawn and placed on the other. The landmarks are located by palpating with the
first fingers while the other fingers hold the cross-bars.
Precautions: The subject should be standing erect.
Note that the subject keeps his shoulder straight.
Bitrochanteric Breadth (tro-tro): It is also known as hip breadth and measures
the straight distance between the two trochanterion landmarks.
Trochanterion(tro): It is the highest and most laterally placed point on the greater
trochanter of the femur. Now how do you locate it? Ask the subject to move the
legs forward and backwards. Then place your fingertips of both hands on the
subject’s thighs. The point that appears to move with the movement is
trochanterion.
Instrument: Rod compass.
Method: Stand behind the subject who is standing erect and hold the rod compass
horizontally. The trochanterion on both the sides are located by using fingertips
of both the hands. Place the rod compass on both the points and note the reading.
Precautions: The feet should touch each other.
Weight of the body should fall equally on both the feet.
Practice 2
Measurements (landmarks) (units) Subject Subject Subject Subject
1 2 3 4
Nasal length (n-prn) (cms)
Nasal breadth (al-al) (cms)
Nasal height (n-sn) (cms)
Biacromial breadth (a-a) (cms)
Bitrochanteric breadth (tro-tro) (cms)
52
Practical in Physical
Anthropology PRACTICE 3
Record the following measurements on four subjects.
Chest circumference
Upper arm circumference
Calf circumference
Skinfold at biceps
Chest circumference: It measures the circumference of the chest of the subject
when the subject is breathing normally.
Instrument: Flexible Steel Tape
Method: Raise the arms of the subject before fixing the tape around the chest.
Hold the tape horizontally at the level of nipples passing over the lower angle of
scapula. The arms should rest normally while taking the measurements. Incase
of females, circumference at the base of xiphoid processes horizontal to the thorax
may be taken.
Precaution: Note that the shoulders are not bending too much forwards.
The tape should be horizontal.
Upper arm circumference: It measures the circumference of the upper arm in
the middle.
Instrument: Flexible Steel Tape
Method: Ask the subject to hang the hand freely in standard arm hanging position.
Place the tape horizontally around middle of the upper arm where generally the
bicep muscles are most developed and record the reading.
Precaution: The arms should be hanging freely.
The tape should neither be tightly nor loosely held.
Calf circumference: It measures the circumference of the calf around the most
developed area of the calf muscles.
Instrument: Flexible Steel Tape
Method: Ask the subject to stand and keep the tape horizontal around the most
developed portion of the muscle of the calf to obtain the value.
Precaution: The legs should be straight.
The tape should neither be tightly not loosely held.
The tape should be horizontal.
Skinfold at biceps: It measures the skinfold thickness at the front of the upper
arm at the level marked for taking the upper arm circumference. Pick up the skin
fold with your thumb and index finger directly above the centre of cubical fossa.
Then apply the skinfold caliper jaws and record the measurement.
Instrument: Skinfold caliper.
Method: Ask the subject to stand with the arms hanging freely on the sides of the
body. Stand in front of the subject, lift a vertical fold with your thumb and index
finger one centimeter above the mid upper arm circumference. Place the jaws of
53
Craniometry,
Mandibulometry,
Somatoscopy and
Somatometry
the caliper on the folds and record the reading in mm. The reading is recorded
when the needle comes to a standstill approximately within a seconds of applying
the caliper.
Precaution: Take care not to prolong the time of the application of the caliper to
the skin because prolongation causes the displacement of the fat,
and hence change in the reading.
The hold of the pinch above the skinfold should not be loosened
while taking the measurement.
If the subject feels pain at the application of the caliper, withdraw it
immediately.
The subject feels pain when the muscle is also pinched along with
the subcutaneous fat.
Practice 3
Measurements (landmarks) (units) Subject Subject Subject Subject
1 2 3 4
Chest circumference (cms)
Upper arm circumference (cms)
Calf circumference (cms)
Skinfold at biceps (mm)
54
Practical in Physical
Anthropology PRACTICE 4
Calculate the following indices on the measurements taken earlier.
Cephalic index
Nasal index
Cephalic index: It is the percentage ratio of maximum head breadth per unit
maximum head length.
Cephalic index (C.I.): Head Breadth × 100
Head Length
Classification
Category Range
Male Female
Hyperdolichocephalic : X-70.9 X-71.9
Dolichocephalic : 71.0-75.9 72.0-76.9
Mesocephalic : 76.0-80.9 77.0-81.9
Brachycephalic : 81.0-85.4 82.0-86.4
Hyperbrachycephalic : 85.5-90.9 86.5-91.9
Ultrabrachycephalic : 91.0 + 92 +
Nasal index: It is the percentage of nasal breadth per unit nasal length.
Nasal Index (N.I): Nasal Breadth × 100
Nasal height
Classification
Category Range
Hyperleptorrhine X-54.9
Leptorrhine 55.0 -69.9
Mesorrhine 70.0 -84.9
Chamaerrhine 85.0 -99.9
Hyperchamaerrhine 100 +
Practice 4
Index Subject Subject Subject Subject
1 2 3 4
Cephalic index
Nasal index
55
Craniometry,
Mandibulometry,
Somatoscopy and
Somatometry
Reference
Broca, P.1865. Instructions generals pour les recherches et observations
anthropologiques. Mem. Soc. Anthrop. Paris. 2:69-204.
Fischer, E. and Saller, K. 1928. Eine neue Haarfarbentafe. Anthrop. Anz. 5: 49-
51.
Fritsch,G. 1916. Bemerkuingen zu der Hautfarbentafel. Mill.Anthrop.Ges.Wien,
46:183
Fritsch,G. 1916. Die Feststellung der menschlichen Hautfarben. Z.Ethnol,48:
86-89.
Hintze, A. 1927. Der Hautfarbenfacher und das Hautfarbendiagramm. Z.Ethnol,
59: 254-278.
Luschan, F.V. 1916. Uber Hautfarbentafeln. Z.Ethnol, 48:402-406.
Suggested Reading
The list is given at the end of unit 4.
56
Practical in Physical
Anthropology UNIT 3 PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES
Introduction
Physiological anthropology is connected to physical anthropology and is
concerned with the uniqueness that relate to biology. It focuses to elucidate human
physiological features, in a wide sense. Seen in this viewpoint, physiological
anthropology belongs to the basic natural sciences. It flourishes on living
organisms that vary in many different ways. Living organisms, in the process of
evolution, have differentiated in many different directions up to the current day.
And within the same species, as individual specimens or in groups, they have
come to have widely varying functional, morphological and behavioral
characteristics which only physiological anthropology takes into account. The
second different aspect of physiological anthropology is that the objects of study
of physiological anthropology are we ourselves, human beings, who have unique
physiological functions compared to other animals in nature. In short, this refers
to very highly developed mental abilities and it is impossible when studying
human beings in a comprehensive way to overlook the existence of these
distinctive abilities. Physiological anthropology is an area focused on the
understanding of human nature and behavior in reference to their environment
based on physiological mechanisms. These biological roles which are based on
behavioral physiological mechanisms have a constructive effect for the living
being resulting as being a form of “adaptation”.
Some adaptations might lead to frequent complaints pertaining to body problems,
basically physiological in nature such as low or high blood pressure, obesity etc.
Such problems have become very common. Blood pressure can be defined as
the pressure exerted by blood on the arterial wall. What happens is that with
each ventricular beat i. e. when left ventricle contracts, blood enter the aorta
which is already filled with blood. As more and more blood enters the aorta, the
blood flow exerts pressure on the elastic arterial wall. This pressure is called
‘blood pressure’. Most people have had their blood pressure checked at some
point of time, either due to curiosity or on a visit to clinician for some discomfort,
isn’t it? You must have seen that it is simple and quite painless procedure, yet
gives vital information about our heart and the condition of the blood vessels.
Now, what is measured while taking blood pressure? Well it is the maximum
pressure (systolic) and the lowest pressure (diastolic) made by the beating of the
heart that is measured. The question what is the maximum or systolic pressure
and what is the minimum or diastolic pressure. The systolic pressure is the
maximum pressure in an artery at the moment when the heart is beating and
pumping blood through the body. The diastolic pressure is the lowest pressure in
an artery in the moments between beats when the heart is resting. Both the systolic
and diastolic pressure measurements are important – if either one is raised i.e.,
more than the standard value one is said to have high blood pressure or
hypertension. How do you measure the blood pressure? Sphygmomanometer is
the answer.
Sphygmomanometer
A sphygmomanometer or blood pressure meter is a tool used to measure blood
pressure particularly in arteries, made up of an inflatable cuff, the function of
57
which is to restrict blood flow Physiological Variables , and a mercury or mechanical manometer to
measure the pressure. The fundamental behind it is that it is always used to
record reading at the time when blood pressure flow has just started and at what
pressure it is unimpeded. Stethoscope is prerequisite while using manual
sphygmomanometers.
The word sphygmomanometer comprises of two Greek words ‘sphygmós’
meaning the beating of the heart or the pulse and a scientific word manometer
refers to device for measuring pressure or tension. The credit of inventing
sphygmomanometer goes to Samuel Siegfried Karl Ritter von Basch in 1881,
although it was Scipione Riva-Rocci, an Italian physician who introduced a more
easily used version in 1896. However, popularity of this device increased only in
1901 after being discovered by Harvey Cushing. Joseph Erlanger (1874-1965),
an American physiologist studied the principles of sphygmomanometry and
devised a recording sphygmomanometer. There are two types of manual
sphygmomanometers available; one with a mercury column and a gauge with a
dial face, but the sphygmomanometer which is most frequently used today consists
of a mercury manometer serving as a measuring unit and inflation bulb and
valve i.e., a gauge is attached to a rubber cuff wrapped around the upper arm and
is inflated to constrict the arteries.
There are three versions of sphygmomanometers available:
Manual sphygmomanometers: Manual sphygmomanometers are most ideal
and conventional device to measure the blood pressure; as they are unfailingly
accurate. Since their reliability quotient is very high they are ideal for monitoring
blood pressure for high risk patient and also pregnant women. The unit of
measurement of blood pressure is millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is usually
calibrated in an even number. Stethoscope usage is mandatory incase of manual
sphygmomanometers auscultation (listening to sounds within the body using a
stethoscope), because only systolic blood pressure is recorded through palpation.
Clinical Mercury Manometer
Source: 1
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Digital with manual or automatic inflation: This is an electronic device, easy
to manage, and functional in noisy environments. It works on the principle of
measuring mean arterial pressure [Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is a term used
in medicine to describe an average blood pressure in an individual during a single
cardiac cycle] and use oscillometric detection to calculate systolic and diastolic
values. This is an indirect way to measure the blood pressure, since it derives the
readings. Digital oscillometric monitors have their own limitations as they cannot
be used in certain conditions like arteriosclerosis, arrhythmia, preeclampsia,
pulsus alternans and pulsus paradoxus.
Digital portable sphygmomanometers:These sphygmomanometers are portable
hence easier to operate but are comparatively less accurate.
Source: www.wikimedia.org
Wrist cuff blood pressure monitors are also in use but are found to be quite
erroneous, and the monitor has to be at the level of the heart when recording the
reading. These are the smallest blood pressure monitors, and are finger blood
pressure monitors having automatic inflation.
Source: u17052091 fotosearch.com
59
S Physiological Variables tethoscope
The term stethoscope is derived from Greek word ‘stéthos’ which means chest
and ‘skopé’ meaning examination. It is an acoustic medical device used in medical
application for audio purposes for auscultation, i.e., listening to the internal sounds
of the body. Its application comprises listening to lung, heart sounds, intestines
and blood flow in arteries and veins. When in combination with a sphymomanometer,
it is commonly used in measuring the blood pressure. You would be surprised to
know that “mechanic’s stethoscopes” are used to listen to internal sounds made
by machines, such as diagnosing a malfunctioning automobile engine by listening
to the sounds of its internal parts and also to check scientific vacuum chambers
for leaks, and for various other small-scale acoustic monitoring tasks.
Source: www.lotusoverseas.com
Let’s see how sphygmomanometer functions. First of all we must know that the
sphygmomanometer measure two readings of blood pressure: systolic and
diastolic blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure refers to systole; this is the
phase when the heart pumps blood out into the aorta or we can say it the measure
of pressure exerted by the blood on the wall of the vessel during each contraction
of the ventricular muscle and diastolic blood pressure refers to diastole, the resting
period when the heart refills with blood as blood fills up the aorta, the pressure
which remains in the arteries during the relaxation of the heart. It means that
with each heartbeat, blood pressure is raised to the systolic level, and between
beats, it drops to the diastolic level. The blood pressure is measured in ‘mmHg’
units by observing the mercury in the column when the air pressure is released
using a control valve. The peak pressure or the maximum pressure in the arteries
during the cardiac cycle is the systolic pressure, and the lowest pressure that is at
the resting phase of the cardiac cycle is termed as diastolic pressure. Systolic
60
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pressure (first phase) is identified with the starting or first of the continuous
Korotkoff sounds whereas the diastolic pressure is identified at that moment
when the Korotkoff sounds disappear (fifth phase). A stethoscope is used in the
auscultatory method.
The question arises, how do you measure the blood pressure?
To start with the subject has to be in relaxed comfortably seated position with
arms well supported. It can also be taken while lying down, and then it is called
in supine position. Always remember that blood pressure is measured by inflating
a cuff around the arm. Tie the cuff around the upper arm of the subject and keep
it in place using Velcro. The cuff is generally tied smoothly and snugly around an
upper arm, at the same height as the heart when the subject is seated with the
arm supported. There is a tube attached to the cuff which connects the rubber
bulb. The cuff is inflated till the artery is completely occluded. When the cuff is
inflated with air, a stethoscope is placed over the brachial artery in the crook of
the arm. When the pressure in the cuffs falls, a “whooshing” or pounding sound
is heard called as Korotkoff sounds, this is the situation when blood flow first
starts again in the artery. The moment the air in the cuff is released, the very first
sound audible through the stethoscope symbolizes the systolic pressure. As the
release of air from the cuff continues there comes a point when the sound
diminishes and then one can no longer hear it. The point where the sound
disappears is considered to be the diastolic pressure. Thus, the blood pressure
reading recorded represents the systolic and diastolic pressures. When we say
that blood pressure is 120/80 then means 120 and 80 mm of mercury (Hg)
respectively with 120 denoting systolic blood pressure and 80 denoting diastolic
blood pressure. A typical blood pressure said to be normal for an adult is 120/78.
This reading varies with age and influenced by many other factors.
The seventh report of Joint National Committee in 2004 on prevention, detection,
evaluation and treatment of blood pressure has given the following standards for
blood pressure:
Category Systolic blood pressure Diastolic blood pressure
(mmHg) (mmHg)
Normal < 120 < 80
Pre-hypertensive 120-139 80-89
Hypertensive > 140 > 90
Measuring Blood Pressure
Source: pe0062147 fotosearch.com
61
Physiological Variables
These days’ electronic measuring devices are commonly found to be used by
people at their home to measure blood pressure (since mercury is being phased
out because of its hazardous nature). They are found to be accurate enough for
routine clinical use, more users friendly and are relatively inexpensive. The
chances of errors in blood pressure measurement that human beings can generate
are reduced.
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) entails measuring the blood
pressure for 24 hours during the daily routine and even during sleep. In this, the
Source: bld061575 fotosearch.com
Source: k0415478 www.fotosearch.com
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device measures the blood pressure at regular intervals. The readings are recorded
on a chip in the device and give a detailed picture of blood pressure variation in
a normal environment. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is advised when
high blood pressure is resistant, that is no reaction to drug treatment – three or
more drugs or help in the identification of high blood pressure related to anxiety
in the clinical setting, known as ‘white coat hypertension’ or when the blood
pressure is showing atypical variation or probably when symptoms suggest the
possibility of low blood pressure due to over-treatment.
Measuring Heart Rate
If you know how to measure your heart rate or pulse, it facilitates in learning
about your own level of fitness and detect potential medical problems that should
be brought to the attention of your physician incase of an irregular reading. What
is Heart Rate? As the name suggests it is number of times heart beats in a minute
measured by feeling your pulse. It is the rhythmic expansion and contraction (or
throbbing) of an artery as blood is forced through it by the regular contractions
of the heart. It is a measure of how hard your heart is working by feeling the
pulse.
Source: px265058 www.fotosearch.com
Source: k5550262 www.fotosearch.com
63
Heart rate is defined as the number of ventricular beats per minute. The heart Physiological Variables
rate can be recorded at any point on the body at which an artery is close to the
surface and a palpitation can be experienced. The most common places to measure
heart rate using the palpation method is at the wrist (radial artery) and the neck
(carotid artery). Elbow (brachial artery) and the groin (femoral artery) are also
sometimes used. Always remember to use your fingers to take a pulse, not your
thumb. This is particularly when recording someone else’s pulse, because
sometimes you feel your own pulse through your thumb. How do you record the
heart rate?
Manual Method
Carotid Pulse (neck) – In this case when heart rate is taken at the neck, the first
two fingers on either side of the neck are positioned, and the number of beats for
a minute is then counted.
Radial Pulse (wrist) – Radial pulse rate involves index and middle fingers
together to be placed on the opposite wrist, about 1
/
2
inch on the inside of the
joint, in line with the index finger. As soon as pulse is felt, number of beats felt
within a one minute period is counted.
Monitor Method
A heart rate monitor is often used to get a more precise heart rate measurement.
This holds significance particularly during exercise where the motion of exercise
often makes it hard to get a clear measurement using the manual method. This
heart rate monitor is especially useful when recording heart rate changes over
short time periods. At times heart rate monitors require a little body sweat between
the chest strap and the skin for best conduction of the signal. In such cases, care
should be taken that there is a good connection between the chest strap and the
chest, and some water or other fluid can be added to enhance the conductivity
too.
Source:www.chicagonow.com
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Let us understand what is a normal heart rate? Well, a resting heart rate anywhere
in the range of 60 – 90 is counted in the normal range. It fluctuates a lot depending
on factors like activity level and stress level. Nevertheless if beat is consistently
above 90, it needs medical attention. This condition of high heart rate is termed
as tachycardia (increased heart rate). It has been observed that in many athletes
the pulse rate is in the range of 40 – 60 depending upon their fitness level. However,
a lower pulse rate is considered to be good. But if the heart rate is too low, it is
termed as bradycardia and can be a dangerous situation combined together with
low blood pressure. A person would feel weakness, loss of energy and fainting.
It warrants for medical attention.
There can be situation when the pattern of beats are irregular (i. e. a beat is
missed) on a consistent basis, such cases necessitate medical attention. There
are many factors that influence heart rate like emotions, climatic temperatures,
posture (sitting, standing, lying down), and body size (if the person is overweight
for size, the heart will have to work harder to supply energy to your body). It is
always good to experience a decrease in resting heart rate as one of the benefits
of increased fitness due to exercise. This is because heart is a muscle and will
respond just like any skeletal muscle in that it will become stronger through
conditioning. If the heart muscles are stronger, then heart rate will decrease. In
fact, heart will be putting out less effort to pump the same amount of blood.
What should be your heart rate? Are you not curious to know?
Take 220 and subtract your age. For example, if you are 36 years old, subtract 36
from 220 (220 – 36= 184). This means that your maximum physiological limit as
to how fast your heart should beat is 184 beats per minute. Now see what should
be yours.
Pulse rate
Your pulse can be felt at the wrist, neck, groin or top of the foot – areas where the
artery is close to the skin. Most commonly, people measure their pulse in their
wrist. This is called the radial pulse. How to measure your Pulse?
The first time that you try to take your pulse it may be a little difficult proposition.
Place the index and middle fingers of your right hand on the thumb side of your
left wrist until you feel your pulse throbbing under your fingers. Using the second
hand on your watch starting the first beat at zero, count how many times your
pulse beats in fifteen seconds.
Source: k0699955 www.fotosearch.com
65
Haemoglobin estimation Physiological Variables
Haemoglobin is a protein used by red blood cells to distribute oxygen further to
other tissues and cells in the body. It constitutes of heme, which comprises iron
atoms plus the red pigment, porphyrin, (responsible for giving the blood its red
colour) and globin a chain of amino acids. Haemoglobin, which is a complex
protein-iron compound in the blood has an important function to carry oxygen
to the cells from the lungs and carbon dioxide away from the cells to the lungs.
Each erythrocyte contains about 200 to 300 molecules of hemoglobin, and then
every molecule of hemoglobin consist of four groups of heme, and each group
of heme has potential carry one molecule of oxygen. Hemoglobin molecule
comprises four globin polypeptide chains composed of amino acids, with each
polypeptide chain composed of 141 to 146 amino acids. The absence, replacement,
or addition of only one amino acid alters the characteristics of the hemoglobin.
Different kinds of hemoglobin are recognized by their specific arrangement of
polypeptide chains. Mostly alpha and beta chains are found with gamma and
delta being found less often. When there is an atmosphere of high oxygen
concentration, such as in the lungs, hemoglobin has the characteristics to the
bind with oxygen to form oxyhemoglobin and in an atmosphere of low oxygen
concentration, such as in the peripheral tissues of the body, oxygen is substituted
by carbondioxide to form carboxyhemoglobin. Hemoglobin releases the
carboxyhemoglobin in the lungs for excretion and picks up more oxygen for
transport to the cells. The normal concentrations of hemoglobin in the blood are
12 to 16 g/dL (grams per deciliter) in women and 13.5 to 18 g/dL in men.
Hemoglobin estimation
A determination of the hemoglobin content of the blood is called Hemoglobin
estimation. The test measures the amount of this substance in a specific volume
of blood. It also indicates the amount of intracellular iron. Being an important
indicator of anemia, hemoglobin estimation is also used in blood transfusions.
Methods of estimation
One of the basic techniques for estimating hemoglobin calorimetrically, is with
a haemometer.
The Sahli haemometer method utilises the conversion of haemoglobin into acid
haematin which has a brown colour in solution. The principle of the instrument
is that Haemoglobin present in a sample of blood is changed into acid hematin
by adding N/l0 HCl to the blood and its haemoglobin content is ascertained by
matching the solution against non fading glass having a standard colour. The
intensity of the colour is associated to the quantity of haemoglobin in the blood
sample. The purpose of adding water is to dilute the brown solution until it
matches that of a standard. The more haemoglobin, the more water required to
arrive at the matching colour. Haemoglobin values are recorded at the meniscus
of the brown solution.
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Source:www.health.adelaide.edu
Sahli’s Haemoglobinometer consists of:
• Comparator box possess
• Special diluting tube
• Haemoglobin pipette
• Glass stirrer
• A bottle containing Nil OHCL
Standards for estimation
Normal range Varies with altitude.
Male – 8.1 to 11.2 mmol/L (13 to 18 gm/dL)
Female – 7.4 to 9.9 mmol/L (12 to 16 gm/dL)
Child – 7.1 to 8.4 mmol/L (11.5 to 13.5 gm/dL)
Newborns – 10.5 to 13.7 mmol/L (17 to 22 gm/dl)
67
Physiological Variables PRACTICE 1
Record the blood pressure of eight subjects.
Introduction
Blood pressure can be defined as the pressure exerted by blood on the arterial
wall when blood enters the aorta already filled with blood. As more and more
blood enters the aorta, the blood flow exerts pressure on the elastic arterial wall.
This pressure is called the blood pressure. The systolic pressure is defined as the
maximum pressure in an artery at the moment when the heart is beating and
pumping blood through the body. The diastolic pressure is considered to be the
lowest pressure in an artery in the moments between beats when the heart is
resting. Both the systolic and diastolic pressure measurements hold significance
clinically.
Instruments used
Sphygmomanometer, stethoscope
Procedure and Instructions
To start with deflate the bladder of the cuff. Ask the subject to sit in a relaxed
position on a chair with the arms supported comfortably at the level of fourth
intercostal space and facing forward. Wrap the cuff around the upper arm to fit it
snugly, but not too tightly about an inch above the elbow at chest level using the
Velcro. Hold the bulb/pump with your palm in such a manner that your fingers
can easily reach the valve at the top to open/close the outlet to the air bladder
wrapped around the person’s arm. A tube leads out of the cuff to a rubber bulb
and another one from cuff to the vertical glass column which has stored mercury
in it. The mercury is housed within a sealed system in such a manner that only
air travels in the rubber tubing and the cuff. This mercury column is very important
as this is the place where the blood pressure is recorded.
Now place chest piece of the stethoscope lightly over the brachial artery above
the crease of the elbow of your subject just under the edge of the cuff. The
stethoscope should ideally be placed lightly over the brachial artery, since the
use of excessive pressure can increase turbulence and delay the disappearance of
sound. Use your right hand and hold it firmly there and the ear piece into your
ears. Pump in the air through the bulb by squeezing and inflate the cuff by so that
there is increased pressure and the subject feels tightening on the upper arm.
Slowly open the valve on the air pump slightly, now this comes really with practice
as it is neither recommended to let the air out suddenly nor too slowly as it
difficult for fingers to maneuver. Be very careful while listening to the pulse
when you let out the air slowly. The systolic pressure is measured when you first
hear the pulse. Now as the needle on the pressure gauge starts falling you can
hear a slight “blrrpp” or a something that sounds like “prrpshh.”. Note down the
reading when you hear it for the first time. This is systolic blood pressure. This
sound continues and becomes louder with increasing intensity. Slowly this sound
would become more distant and finally disappear. The reading, after which the
sound of the pulse disappears, is called as diastolic blood pressure. Always
remember that the blood pressure is measured in terms of millimeters of mercury
(mmHg). After you have recorded the blood pressure open the valve so as to
completely remove the remaining air from the bulb. It takes practice to take the
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Practical in Physical
Anthropology
blood pressure accurately, you must get accustomed to the sound of pulse
appearing and disappearing.
Precautions
Prior to initiating the practical explain to your subject the procedure and objective
behind taking the blood pressure.
Check if sphygmomanometer is in functional condition.
The subject should be in a relaxed position throughout the whole process.
Blood pressure should not be taken if the subject has eaten at least half an hour
prior to being measured.
Do not take blood pressure immediately after the subject has performed any
physical activity.
Practice 1
Subjects Systolic blood pressure Diastolic blood pressure
(mmHg) (mmHg)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
69
Physiological Variables PRACTICE 2
Record the heart rate and pulse rate of eight subjects.
Heart Rate
Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, conventionally expressed
as beats per minute (bpm). Variation in heart rate has been observed depending
upon the body’s need to absorb oxygen and excrete carbondioxide changes, like
during exercise or sleep. Heart rate gives vital information on diagnosis and
tracking of medical conditions. Apart from medical concerns it is used by athletes,
in monitoring their heart rate to gain maximum efficiency from their training.
Instruments used
Stethoscope and stop watch.
Procedure and Instructions
Ask the subject to sit in a relaxed position on a chair. Place the chest piece of the
stethoscope on the left side of the chest of the subject. It should be just below the
nipple or wherever the heartbeat is strongly felt. Count the beats for one minute
using a stop watch and the note down the reading.
Precautions
• The subject should be made comfortable and seated in a relaxed sitting
position.
• The subject should not have exerted like exercise or brisk walking before
the measurement is taken.
• The measurement should not be taken at least half an hour after the meals.
Pulse Rate
Pulse rate is the frequency of pressure waves (waves per minute) transmit along
the peripheral arteries such as carotid, brachial or radial arteries. The left ventricle
pushes blood into the already blood filled aorta whose walls stretches with each
contraction, to facilitate the flow of the blood to different parts of the body. The
expansion of arteries starts at the root of aorta and proceeds as a wave along the
whole arterial system. The wave of expansion is measured as pulse rate.
Instrument used
Stop watch.
Procedure and Instructions
Ask the subject to sit in a relaxed sitting position. Turn the palm side of your
subject facing up. Now, place your index and middle fingers of your opposite
hand on your wrist, approximately 1 inch below the base of your hand, that is
towards the thumb side of the subject’s right hand (radial artery) and feel the
pulse point where your three fingers are placed. Press your fingers down in the
grove between your middle tendons and your outside bone. You should feel a
throbbing – the pulse. Record the number of pulse by counting it for a minute
using stop watch.
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Precautions
The subject should be sitting in a relaxed sitting position during the measurement.
The subject should not have exercised or eaten half an hour prior to the
measurement.
Practice 2
Subjects Heart rate (bpm) Pulse rate (ppm)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Suggested Reading
The list is given at the end of unit 4.
71
Physiological Variables PRACTICE 3
Estimate hemoglobin for eight subjects.
Hemoglobin Estimation
Hemoglobin estimation is a determination of the hemoglobin content of the blood.
The RBC protein hemoglobin is incharge for oxygen transport. It is perhaps the
most precise way of measuring the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is to
determine its hemoglobin content. Oxygen, which unites reversibly with the heme
(iron-containing portion) of the hemoglobin molecule, is singled out by the blood
cells in the lungs and delivered in the tissues. Consequently the more hemoglobin
molecules the RBCs contain, the more oxygen they will be able to transport. The
standard normal blood contains 12 to 16 g hemoglobin per 100 mL blood.
Hemoglobin content in men is (l4 to 18 g) whereas in women it is 12 to 16 g.
There are number of techniques developed to estimate the hemoglobin content
of blood, ranging from the old Sahli method to expensive colourimeter methods,
which are precisely calibrated and yield highly accurate results.
Instrument used
Sahli’s haemoglobinometer (haemometer), distilled water, rectified spirit, cotton,
lancet.
Procedure
Take 5 drops of 0.1 N HCI (Hydrochloric acid) up to the lowest mark in the
diluting tube. Put the diluting tube in the space provided in the box. Rectified
spirit is used to sterilize the fingertip. Prick the finger to get moderately large
drop of blood. Use the pipette to suck the blood up to the 20 mm3
mark without
any air bubble. Cotton is used to wipe off any blood sticking to the tip and sides
of the pipette. Transfer the blood immediately into the acid present in the diluting
tube. Rinse the pipette two or three times with the acid and transfer into the
diluting tube. For haemoglobin to convert to acid haematin mix and keep it
undisturbed for 10 minutes. Then dilute the contents by adding distilled water
drop by drop and take care to mix the contents after each drop with the stirrer, till
the colour matches with the colour of the standard. Record the reading both in
gram scale and percentage scale by noting the lower meniscus. Record the
hemoglobin as gm/100 mL
Precautions
There should not be any air bubble or blood clot in the column of the pipette.
Graduations on the diluting tube should not interfere with colour matching.
The glass rod should be lifted up before colour matching and reading.
Wipe off the excess blood sticking to the sides and tip of the pipette.
Transfer the contents without delay into the diluting tube and record the time.
Take the reading without any delay because on keeping the colour will deepen.
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Practice 3
Sl. No. Subject/Sex/Age Hb (gm/dL)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
73
Physiological Variables UNIT 4 SEROLOGY AND
DERMATOGLYPHICS
ABO BLOOD GROUP
Introduction
Human blood holds an extremely important position in our body system. Blood
groups are immunological characters, determined by the presence of an antigen
on the red blood cell, which are strongly inherited, hence come under the
classificatory categories, which are inherited characters. Blood groups differ
between individuals in a population. Population also differs in the frequency of
different blood group. These differences in the frequency of blood group are
characteristics of the population and thus are anthropologically valuable. Fifteen
different blood group systems are known (such as ABO, MN, Rh, Lutheran,
Kell, Duffy, Kidd, Lewis, Diego, etc) each controlled by a separate locus, and at
each locus multiple alleles are known to be present.
What is the basis of classifying blood in different blood groups?
It is the antigen – antibody reaction. Antigens are proteins which excite the
production of antibodies and antibodies are substances in the serum or plasma
which are very specific to an antigen reaction.
What does Blood grouping imply?
It is process of testing the unknown red cells with known antiserum.
Now how do you identify the antigens?
Different antigens on the red cells are specific to the antibodies (proteins in
serum) which when react with the antigens cause agglutination of the red blood
cells.
What do you understand by agglutination?
Agglutination refers to clumping, clustering or bundling together of red blood
cells.
ABO blood group has naturally occurring antibodies in their serums; while in
others like MN and Rh, it can be produced through immunization. As mentioned
earlier the basic principle of blood grouping is an antigen-antibody reaction. A
particular antigen reacts only with its specific antibody and not with others. The
reaction is an observable phenomenon in the form of agglutination.
ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM
As you already know A, B, AB and O are commonly known blood groups. How
do we differentiate between them and create an identity for them? The presence
or absence of blood group antigens A and B on the red cells forms the basis of
classification of ABO blood group. If antigen –A , is present on the red blood
cells then there are anti-B antibodies in the serum; similarly, if there is antigen –
B, on the red blood cells then, anti-A antibodies are found in the serum. If, in a
person both antigen A and antigen B are present on the red cells, then neither
antibody in the serum is found and people who do not contain either of the
antigens on the red blood cells have blood group O and thus have both the anti-
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Practical in Physical
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A and anti-B antibodies in their serum. This means that type A blood group
indicates the presence of antigen A, while type B blood group shows the presence
of antigen B. Type AB blood group, as has been mentioned earlier, has both the
antigens A and B, while type O blood group has no antigens. In the ABO system,
antibodies are there in the serum right from the time of birth. Individuals with
Group A blood group have anti-B in their plasma, those with group B blood
group have anti-A, AB individuals have neither, while O individuals have both
the antibodies.
The antigen-antibody reactions hold an important criterion for determining the
mode of blood transfusion. For example, all the people belonging to blood group
A can take blood from A blood group people, but not from other blood groups,
like B or AB blood group. In blood group O, no antigen is present on the red
blood cells; therefore it can be transfused to persons with other blood groups.
ABO blood group system holds an important position as far as its applications
are concerned. It enjoys wide field of application like in ethnic diversity, blood
transfusion, paternity diagnosis, genetic counseling and also in forensic
investigations including medico-legal angle and detection of drugs in blood.
Furthermore, different blood groups show certain level of association with
particular disease, such as Blood group A shows an association with cancer of
the stomach.
Let us understand how blood groups are inherited. The ABO blood group system
is controlled by a single locus with three alleles viz. A, B and O. They hold
responsibility for the production of antigen-A, antigen –B, and neither antigen,
respectively. Alleles A and B are both dominant hence are referred as co-dominant,
while allele O is recessive to both. There are two subtypes of the group A,
designated as A1
and A2
and, therefore, A is replaced by two alleles, A1
and A2
.
A1
is dominant over A2
. It is because of A1
and A2 which is two sub-types of
group A, the system ABO Blood group has been designated as Blood group A1A2
BO. The four alleles give rise to ten genotypes and six phenotypes as given
below:
Phenotypes Genotypes
A1 A1A1, A1A2, A1O
A2 A2A2, A2O
B BB, BO
A1B A1 B
A2
B A2 B
O OO
As mentioned earlier let us look at the antigen and antibodies in the ABO blood
group system again
Blood group Antigen Antibody
A A anti – B
B B anti – A
AB A,B –
O – anti – A, anti – B
75
Serology and
Dermatoglyphics
The fundamental principle behind ABO blood grouping is that, an unknown
blood sample or red cells are agglutinated, when treated by anti-A serum, the
cells are classified as belonging to group A; if there is reaction with anti-B serum,
the cells are classified as blood group B; if there is reaction with anti – A as well
as with anti-B serum, the cells are said to be belonging to group AB. When there
is no reaction with either anti-A or anti-B serum, the cells are classified as group
O. We can understand this from the following table:
Reaction in the ABO blood group system
Determination of A1A2BO Blood group using Anti- A, Anti- A1
, Anti- A2
, AntiB,
Anti- AB and Anti- H
Anti sera Blood
Anti A Anti B Anti AB Anti A1 Anti H group
+ – + A1
+ – – + A2
– + B
– – – + O
+ + + + A1
B
+ + + – + A2B
ABO Grouping Technique involves the following steps:
1) Preparation of normal saline: Dissolve 8.5 to 9.0 gms of Sodium Chloride
in 100 cc of distilled water, which will make 8.5 to 9.0 % of normal saline.
(8.5 gms is ideal as it allows for increased concentration of salt as a result of
evaporation of water). This solution is called isotonic with respect to red
blood cells of the human body.
2) Blood collection and making 2% red cell suspension: Clean the finger from
which the blood is to be taken with cotton swab soaked in methanol.
Prick the finger with a new disposable lancet.
a) Collect the blood in the micro tube which already has 24 drops of
normal saline solution.
b) Centrifuge the tube which has distilled water and a drop of blood.
c) Take the supernatant with the pipette.
d) Pour 24 drops of normal saline into the tube.
e) Centrifuge it twice. There is a risk of washing away the antigen on the
surface of the red blood cells, if centrifuged more than thrice.
Did you realise how you made 2% red cell suspension?
Each drop of blood contains half a drop of cells. Now, when you add 1 drop
of blood to 24 drops normal saline solution it makes 2% cell suspension.1
/2
drop in 25 drops makes it 2 drops in 100 drops i.e. 2%.
3) Mix the blood with the respective serum: Take a grooved slide in which the
groove resembles the bottom of the tube, this aids in the agglutination.
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a) Clean the groove with spirit and dry it.
b) Put a drop of anti-A serum in one groove and a drop of Anti-B serum in
another groove.
c) Add a drop of the prepared 2% cell suspension in each groove
Take a cleaned and dried dumble-shaped glass stud and stir the mixture of
blood and sera in a circular motion.
4) Determination of blood by examining the agglutination: Examine the groove
for agglutination.
If there is a positive reaction or agglutination when treated with anti –A
serum, it is blood group A. Similarly when treated with anti –B serum, it is
blood group B (if agglutination is noticed). If the agglutination is observed
when treated with anti-A and anti-B serum, it is blood group AB. If no
agglutination is observed with either serum, it is blood group O.
Rh blood group
Landsteiner and Weiner deserve the credit of discovering Rh factor in 1940.
How did they give the name Rh to the blood group?
They injected the blood of rhesus monkey, in a rabbit and found antibodies formed
in the rabbit. These antibodies agglutinated the red blood cells of all the rhesus
monkeys. This occurred because the monkey’s erythrocytes bear a particular
antigen designated as Rh. Human beings that produce anti-Rh antibodies are
Rh+
(Rh positive) and those who do not are Rh-
. There are very few people who
are Rh- (Rh negative). Antigen D most commonly referred to as Rh+
blood group
antigen is frequently concerned with the problems of blood transfusion and
sometimes with those of pregnancy.
The blood group Rh can be analysed by two methods
Slide Test Method
Rapid Test Tube Method
Slide Test Method
a) Put a drop of anti-D serum on a warm (47 degrees Celsius) slide.
b) Add 1 drop of 40% red cell suspension in normal saline to be tested.
c) Mix the contents systematically with the applicator stick.
d) Move it back and forth for about 2 minutes.
e) Use a hand lens to check the agglutination.
Rapid Test Tube Method
a) Take a clean dry test tube and put a drop of anti-D serum.
b) Add 5% red blood cell suspension to the test tube.
c) Mix the contents in the tube thoroughly and centrifuge for 2 minutes at 1000
rpm.
d) Care should be taken so that there is no hemolysis as it can be misinterpreted
as negative result.
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e) Suspend the cells by gentle shaking.
f) Use hand lens to see if agglutination is present or not and accordingly record
the result.
Anti – D Blood group
+ Rh+
_ Rh –
78
Practical in Physical
Anthropology PRACTICE 1
Analyse the blood sample for ABO and Rh blood group for eight subjects.
Introduction
The blood groups are identified in ABO group on the basis of presence or absence
of antigen A and B on red blood cells. They are identified on the principle of
agglutination reaction between the unknown blood and the sera of known
antibody. Suppose the unknown red blood cells get agglutinated by anti-A sera
then the blood group is A, if the unknown red blood cells get agglutinated
by anti-B sera then the blood group is B, if it reacts with both the sera, then
the blood group is AB and if no agglutination occurs with any sera, it is blood
group O.
When the unknown blood is treated with anti-D and agglutination takes place
then the blood is Rh+
(Rh positive) and if no agglutination takes place, then the
blood is Rh-
(Rh negative).
Material
The following apparatus and reagents are required for blood collection and
analysis of ABO and Rh blood group:
Apparatus
1) Beakers
2) Centrifuge
3) Cotton
4) Droppers
5) Eppendrof tubes
6) Forceps
7) Funnel
8) Glass marking pencil
9) Lancet
10) Leucoplast
11) Measuring cylinder
12) Ordinary test tubes
13) Porcelain tiles
14) Petri dishes
15) Scissors
16) Slides
17) Stirrer
18) Test tube stand
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Reagents
1) Anti- A
2) Anti- B
3) Anti- AB
4) Anti- D
5) Anti- H
6) Distilled water
7) EDTA
8) Methanol
9) Normal saline solution (0.9%)
Method
Blood sample collection
Collect the blood samples in the eppendrof tubes which contain EDTA. The
blood samples are transferred to the ordinary test tube with saline water for testing
ABO blood groups and Rh factor, then the blood samples from the eppendrof
are transferred to the slide for analysis.
a) Cleanse the subjects’ left ring finger with cotton swab soaked in methanol.
b) Prick the finger with sterilized disposable lancet and collect few drops of
blood in the eppendrof. The ordinary test tube for ABO blood group contains
3-4 ml of normal saline solution.
c) Now analyse the blood
There are two methods for blood analysis
Slide Method
a) 10% suspension of cells in physiological saline is prepared.
b) Place a drop of anti-A on one side or one cavity of the tile
c) Place a drop of anti-B on the other side
d) To each half of the slides add a drop of 10% red cell suspension.
e) Mix the cells and serum with clean corner of the slide and then mix it to
smooth suspension
f) Shake the slide back and forth and gently rock.
Allow it to stand for 2-3 minutes shaking it gently occasionally to ensure
thorough mixing.
Cell Suspension Method
a) Centrifuge the blood samples with normal saline solution for about 2-3
minutes at 2000 rpm.
b) Discard the supernatant through the dropper.
c) Add normal saline to the RBC button
d) Shake it thoroughly so that the cells are suspended in the saline
e) Centrifuge and repeat the step
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Practical in Physical
Anthropology
f) Prepare 5% cell suspension i.e., 18 drops of saline and one drop of RBC for
subsequent analysis.
g) Pour RBC suspension of the subject with the help of a dropper, in the different
grooves of the porcelain tile.
h) Put a drop of antiserum in each drove
i) Allow it to coagulate for the analysis.
Analysis
The analysis of the blood group is based on agglutination reaction between antisera
and antigen present in the body.
a) If the red blood cells carry the corresponding antigen to the known antibody,
note that agglutination would take place.
b) No agglutination indicates the absence of particular antigen
See the table below to understand it better
Unknown red cell samples
1 2 3 4
Anti- A + – + –
Anti- B – + + –
Blood group A B AB O
Here + denotes complete agglutination and – represent no reaction i.e. no
agglutination.
Rh factor is based on agglutination between the antigen on RBC and anti- D.
A) Transfer the blood sample on the slide using a micro dropper;
B) Pour a drop of anti- D using a micro dropper on the blood sample;
C) Allow it to agglutinate for analysis;
D) If agglutination of the cells is noticed, it indicates blood group is Rh+
(Rh
positive); and
E) If no agglutination of the cells takes place, it indicates the blood group is Rh
(Rh negative).
Precautions
a) Use cotton swab with methanol to clean the finger before the prick.
b) Dispose off lancet after single use.
c) Use separate droppers for separate suspensions.
d) Collect the blood properly in the eppendrof tube without any loss.
e) After you collect the blood in eppendrof gently mix with EDTA properly.
f) Put the blood samples thus collected in the ice box as soon as possible.
g) Test the blood within 24 hours of collection.
h) Clean all the glassware to be used.
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i) Pour few drops of EDTA in the Eppendrof tubes.
j) Take equal quantity of serum and cell suspension for I deal results.
Practice 1
Subject Anti A Anti B Anti D Blood group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
82
Practical in Physical
Anthropology DERMATOGLYPHICS
Cummins and Midlo (1962) coined the term Dermatoglyphics which is derived
from two Greek words ‘Dermato’ which means skin and ‘glyphics’ meaning
carving. Basically, it is the science of epidermal ridge pattern on human fingers,
palms, toes and soles. Print of the palm is termed as palmar print and that of feet
is referred to as plantar print. If you want to study extensively the skin pattern of
any area, it is best studied in detail when the print of whichever area you want is
taken following standard method. Before we learn the methods to take print, let
us get familiar with certain terms that will help in understanding the objective
better.
Ridges: The ridge patterns have an identity of their own. Did you notice that the
palmar and plantar surfaces and fingers in man lack hair and sebaceous glands
with plenty of sweat glands. That is, the ridged skin with sweat is structural
specialisation among human beings. The ridges on our skin or epidermal ridges
form a regular pattern on the phalanges of the digits, palms and soles. Every
individual possesses distinct features of ridges and their pattern in fingers, palms
and soles and remain stable all through life. From the anthropological perspective,
it holds an important position as they are one of the anthropological characters
that are relatively stable for a population. Not only does it provide invaluable
information in forensic anthropology, but an association with genetic conditions
and chromosomal aberration has also been observed. The evolutionary
relationship with the hand and foot prints of primates with humans holds important
comparative information too.
Source: www.barcode.ro
Ridge Configurations: The epidermal ridges or the ridges on the skin are not
just random. They form a definite local pattern on the terminal segments or
phalanges of the digits and also on the palm and sole. This holds an extremely
important position in personal identification, inheritance, racial variation and
other biological aspects of dermatoglyphics as mentioned earlier due to immense
variation of the configuration. The configuration present on distal phalanges of
finger and toes, depending upon their construction are termed as arches, loops
and whorls by Galton (1892). Except for plain arches all other configurations
appear to be composed of abruptly curved ridges. Actually, plain arches have
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parallel ridges and is a special form of open field too. The middle and proximal
segments of the digits seldom exhibit true patterns because of configuration which
could be open field or erratic arrangement of ridges called vestiges.
Triradius: Triradius as the name indicates is the meeting point of three systems
of parallel ridge systems which are called radiants; hence it holds a distinct
landmark in parallel ridge system. There are four digital triradii, positioned at
the base of the digits II, III, IV and V. When referred from radio-ulnar order it is
called as a, b, c and d. The two distal radiants encompass the digital area of each
distal triradius. Whereas, the proximal radiant heads towards the interior of the
palm, and when fully traced this radiant shapes the palmar main line.
Subsequently, the genesis of the four main lines are the four digital triradii point
which are assigned A, B, C and D. The margin between the thenar and hypothenar
eminences, is the axial triradii also called as‘t’-triradius. Sometimes, the axial
triradius is positioned more toward the centre of the palm. There may be more
than one of this triradius, and in rare cases, there may be none. The distal radiant
of this triradius, when fully traced, is its main line, designated as ‘T’.
Source: www.multiperspectivepalmreading.com
Core: It constitutes the main focus of the pattern as, when the ridges of the
pattern diffuse around this centre they take the shape of an island, a short straight
ridge, a hook shaped ridge, a circle etc. Sometimes two or more short straight
ridges form the core of a pattern.
Source: www.webopedia.com
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Anthropology
Finger Topography
Did you realise that there is a pattern on the ball of the fingers? Notice that these
ridges in the larger area run parallel to each other, whereas in smaller area they
bend to form discontinuity. These are called patterns. As mentioned earlier Galton
differentiated the prints or configuration on fingers as whorl, loop and arch. But
then Henry proposed composites to be included in these three as the fourth one.
Often whorls and composites are combined and Galton’s three fold classification
is ensued. Let us briefly understand the patterns:
Fingertip patterns representing an arch (A), loop (B), and whorl (C). Adapted from Holt (Holt
SB. Quantitative genetics of finger-print patterns. Br Med Bull 1961;17:247–50)
Arches: These are most uncomplicated of all the patterns and are commonly
referred to as patternless configurations. There are two types of arches:
Plain arch (A): There is no triradius which is connected with the ridges, and
ridges flow from one margin to the other slightly bowing, distally characterised
by three arch curves.
Source: www.students.stedwards.edu
Tented Arch (TA): It appears to have triradius on which the ridge overtops
moving from one margin to another in the form of a tent.
Source: www.policensw.com
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Serology and
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Loops: In this the ridges of the loop form head of the loop by curving around
only one extremity of the pattern, whereas on the opposite extremity it is said to
be open as ridges flow to the margin of the digit. Loops are known to have only
one triradius and the extremity in which this triradius lies is a close area. Loops
turn at an angle of 180 degrees and are generally associated with one triradius.
Ulnar loop (UL) as the name suggests opens to the ulnar side and then the
triradius is on the radial side. Subsequent loops which are on the toes and soles
are called Fibular loops (FL) which naturally opens to the fibular side and in
this case triradius is on tibial side.
Radial loop (RL) similarly opens to the radial side and in this case triradius is
on the ulnar side. In this case the corresponding loops on toes and soles are
called Tibial loop (TL) which as the name indicates open to the tibial side and
triradius is on fibular side.
Distal loops open to the distal side. A loop on palm or sole generally opens in
the direction of finger or toes i.e., distal side.
Proximal loops are the loops that open on the wrist side as on the thenar area of
the palm.
Whorls (W) are the patterns with two triradii with ridges forming circuit around
the core.
True Whorls are the ones which have single core and at times double core too.
In this the ridges go round 360 degrees.
Double loop type of Whorl:
Central Pocket Loop (CPL) is a whorl, distinguished, as it bears a small loop
within a loop.
Twin Loop (TL) as the name suggests is a type of whorl where two loops open
to opposite direction.
Lateral Pocket Loop (LPL) is a whorl where in two interlocked loops open to
the same margin.
Superwhorl (SW) is a condition when the pattern has three loops and three
triradius.
Source: www.viewzone.com
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Practical in Physical
Anthropology
Twin Loop
Source:www.fotolibra.com
Palmar Topography
Look at your palms carefully. The proximal area of the palm is bound by a bracelet
crease, very much like the name, and on the other side are the metacarpophalangeal
creases. There are about six elevations around the hollow of the palm,
varying in prominence. Four of these are interdigital pads, lying in the proximal
to the interdigital intervals and are numbered accordingly as I, II, III and IV. The
remaining two out of six are the thenar eminence occupying a large area of the
proximodigital quadrant at the base of the thumb. These are bound by the radial
longitudinal crease which is popularly called as the life line. Opposite to this, the
hypothenar eminence is distinct; lying is a more elongated elevation, in the ulnar
portion of the palm. Notice the shape of the palm, it runs in four anatomical
directions proximal, distal, radial and ulnar.
Numbering the Palmar Area and the Main Lines
The margin of the palmar area is divided into 14 points and intervals. The number
sequence begins with the proximal part of the thenar eminence. On the radial
side of the axial triradius and at the base of the thumb, number 1 is given; this
area continues around the proximal, ulnar, distal and radial borders of the palm.
Number 2 position is allotted to axial triradius which is a point. The approximate
midpoint of the ulnar margin is designated as 4; the digital areas are represented
by 6,8,10 and 12. The interval between the points 4 and 6 is numbered 5, which
is further divided into 5’ which is the proximal half, and 5’’ which is the distal
half. Here the rule is that, each of the marginal areas of the palm are numbered
following the principle that points are given even numbers, 2, 4,6, 8,10 and 12
beginning as mentioned above from the base of the palm behind the thumb
(No.1), moving from ulnar to radial side, and odd numbers 1,3,5,7,9,11 and 13
are given to intermediate areas as shown in Figure.
It is the radiants of the triradius that traces the lines in the form of loops and
whorls which are called as the Type line. One can identify the pattern on the
basis of these lines. The longest radiant of digital triradius is the main line, hence
the designation of main lines as D, C, B, A and T lines (see Figure).
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Serology and
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Source: www.atlasgeneticsoncology.org
88
Practical in Physical
Anthropology PRACTICE 1
Record the finger and palm prints of eight subjects
Material used: Magnifying Glass
Inking Plate (Metal or ¼” Glass) 6″ wide x 14” long
Card Holder
Hardwood stand 2’ length x 1’ height and width
Cleaning Fluid or Cream
Paper Towels
Roller
Inking Plate Cleanser
Printer Ink/Stamp Pad Ink (heavy black paste),
Note: Printing ink or ordinary ink or infact any other coloured inks are not advised
for fingerprinting work. The reason being they are too light, thin and do not dry
quickly.
Finger Print Method
a) Clean the hand of the subject and dry with clean towel.
b) Smear the ink over the fingers.
c) Hold the terminal knuckle of the finger and roll it from radial to ulnar side.
The thumb should be rolled from opposite side.
d) The ideal finger prints should be square in shape. The triradii should be
visible in the print. One triradius for loop, two triradius for whorl and three
triradius on a super whorl.
Palmar Print Method
a) Hold the wrist of the subject and place the hand on the inked slab uniformly.
b) Lift it up slowly from the ulnar end of the palm.
c) Place the palm on the paper.
d) Press the interdigital areas and hollow in the centre of the palm.
e) Remove the palm from the paper slowly without any jerk pressing the centre
of the palm.
f) Roll the palm on the ulnar end.
g) Take care that there is uniformity in the print including that of the hollow in
the centre and ulnar end of the palm.
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Serology and
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Practice 1
Recording the pattern from finger prints and Palmar prints of eight subjects
PALMAR DERMATOGLYPHICS
Discipline of Anthropology, IGNOU.
S.No Name Age Sex Date of Printing
Date of Analysis
D C B A Axial Hypothenar Thenar/I II III IV MLI
Triradius
FINGERBALL DERMATOGLYTPHICS
Discipline of Anthropology, IGNOU.
Name
Age
Sex
Date of Printing
Date of Analysis
Pattern Typing (RIGHT HAND)
I II III IV V
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Practical in Physical
Anthropology
Pattern Typing (LEFT HAND)
I II III IV V
Reference
Cumins, H. and Midlo, C. 1962. Finger Prints, Palms and Soles. An Introduction
to Dermatoglyphics. New York; Dover Publications Incorp.
Galton, F. 1892. Fingerprints. London; McMillan.
Suggested Reading
Hole, J.W. Jr. 1992. Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology. USA; Wm.
C. Brown Publishers.
Mukherji, D, Mukherjee, D.P. and Bharathi, P. 2009. Laboratory Manual for
Biological Anthropology. New Delhi; Asian Books Pvt Ltd.
Singh, I. P. and Bhasin, M. K. 2004. A Manual of Biological Anthropology.
New Delhi; Kamla-Raj-Enterprises.