SCHOOLS OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY
- Here are six major schools of orthodox Indian Hindu philosophy:-
- Five major heterodox schools—Jain, Buddhist, Ajivika, Ajñana, and Cārvāka.
- Kanada also known as Kashyapa, Uluka, Kananda and Kanabhuk,was an ancient Indian natural scientist and philosopher who founded the Vaisheshika school of Indian philosophy that also represents the earliest Indian physics.
- Estimated to have lived sometime between 6th century to 2nd century BCE, little is known about his life.His traditional name “Kanada” means “atom eater”,
- He is known for developing the foundations of an atomistic naturalism Indian philosophy in the Sanskrit text Vaisheshika Sutra.
- The school founded by Kanada attempted to explain the creation and existence of the universe by proposing an atomistic theory, applying logic and realism, and is among one of the earliest known systematic realist ontology in human history.
- Kanada suggested that everything can be subdivided, but this subdivision cannot go on forever, and there must be smallest entities (parmanu) that cannot be divided, that are eternal, that aggregate in different ways to yield complex substances and bodies with unique identity, a process that involves heat, and this is the basis for all material existence.
- He used these ideas with the concept of Atman (soul, Self) to develop a non-theistic means to moksha.
- Kanada’s system speaks of six properties (padārthas) that are nameable and knowable. He claims that these are sufficient to describe everything in the universe, including observers.
- These six categories are dravya (substance), guna (quality), karman (motion), samanya (universal), visesa (particular), and samavaya (inherence). There are nine classes of substances (dravya), some of which are atomic, some non-atomic, and others that are allpervasive.
- Physics is central to Kaṇāda’s assertion that all that is knowable is based on motion.
- Kanada begins his Sutras by defining Dharma as that which brings about material progress and highest good.
- He follows this Sutra with another that asserts that the Vedas have gained respect because they teach such Dharma, and something is not Dharma simply because it is in the Vedas
- Kanada came up with the idea that paramanu (atom) was an indestructible particle of matter.
- The atom is indivisible because it is a state at which no measurement can be attributed. He used invariance arguments to determine properties of the atoms. He also stated that anu can have two states — absolute rest and a state of motion.
- Vaiseshikas further held that atoms of same substance combined with each other to produce dvyanuka (diatomic molecules) and tryanuka (triatomic molecules).
- Kanada’s conception of the atom was likely independent from the similar concept among the ancient Greeks, because of the differences between the theories. For example,
- Kanada suggested that atoms as building blocks differ both qualitatively and quantitatively, while Greeks suggested that atoms differed only quantitatively but not qualitatively.