UPSC Handwritten Notes Anthropometric And Physiological Dimensions Practicing Anthropology | Important Notes Free PDF Download

Notes By-

Sachin Gupta

Cleared UPSC 2017 with AIR-3

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The purpose to have a unit on Design Anthropometry is to take you learners
through a detailed exploration of what it is, how it originated and how it is used
by anthropologists as practitioners in different fields of design. We will attempt
to see how anthropometry is used as a set of techniques associated with methods
of measuring and aids in the creation of design which suits individual needs. Let
us now proceed with the unit, with a description of the term anthropometry and
design anthropometry.

1.2 ANTHROPOMETRY AND DESIGN

ANTHROPOMETRY
Before we give a description of what design anthropometry is, let us first
understand the meaning of the term anthropometry. The term anthropometry
was introduced by Georges Cuvier (1769-1832). He was a French naturalist.
The first use of anthropometry in anthropology was of course in physical
anthropology where it was used to study human variability among different human
races. It was also used to make a comparative study of human beings and primates
(Herron, 2006). Anthropometry comes from the Greek words, anthropos (man)and metron (measure). Put together the words mean, measurement of man or in
today’s terms measurement of humans (ibid). The measurement done through
anthropometry concentrates on bodily characteristics like body composition and
body shape, which is known as static anthropometry and measurement of the
body’s movement and strength capacities and how space is used. This is known
as dynamic anthropometry (ibid).
The use of anthropometry started many years ago with the same needs in mind
as today. That is in its initial stage too, anthropometry was concerned with the
collection of data of body parts to design clothes, tools and apparatus etc. among
other things. Other applications also used measurements for assessment of height,
shape and size of other body areas etc. During the early times, like the 15th century
BC, body parts were also of immense interest to artists and sculptors. Works of
eminent talents of the time, like Leonardo da Vinci, Albercht Durer, Alberti Pierro
della Francescan etc., who were among the main protagonists of the renaissance
period, heralded the methodical commencement of anthropometry (ibid).
Coming back to physical anthropology, the subject is entirely seen as an applied
practical area which can be utilised for workable objectives. In the study of
humans, anthropology gets associated with ergonomics where the system of man
and technique can be combined to reach new goals. In this process ergonomic
anthropology has grown along with areas of technology, engineering, physiology
and psychology and aspires to achieve the perfect setting for this human-technique
system to operate. Anthropologists associated with ergonomics takes help from
basic anthropology which works towards the requirements of technology and
engineering (Nowak, 2006).
“Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned
with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements
of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and
methods to design in order to optimise human well-being and overall
system performance.”
Source: http://www.iea.cc/01_what/What%20is%20Ergonomics.html
By now we are clear that anthropometry is an important part in the study and
applicability of ergonomics. We now proceed to understand what design
anthropometry is. Design anthropometry is basically anthropometry utilised to
design equipments, gears etc., with the knowledge of body proportions and is
conducted with the help of measurements of humans to provide them the best
arrangements. Its usability extends to, many fields including industrial design,
kitchen design, workplace design, architecture etc., to name a few. To take this
concern forward, we will now proceed with a discussion on the various kinds of
measurements involved and what the usages of design anthropometry are.

1.3 METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS

Anthropometric measurements are conducted to know about the body dimensions
for various purposes. There are some fundamental kinds of anthropometric
measurements. They are:
a) Linear Measurements.
b) Circumferential Measurements and Design Anthropometry
c) Force Measurements.
In linear measurements, the breadth, height and length of the body is taken into
consideration. There are specific landmarks between which these measurements
are taken. To elaborate, body movements recognised in the sagittal plane are
known as flexion and extensions; back and head movements in the sagittal plane
are said to be bending to the right and to the left and movements in the boundaries
are known as adductions and abductions. In view of these boundaries, movements
found in the transverse plane are called pronations and supinations and movements
in the back are called left turns and right turns.
More significant to our concern in design anthropometry is the circumferential
measurements of the body as they are mainly carried out with the intention of
clothing design and physical evaluation. Here the main measurements involve
head, chest, neck, arms, hips, thigh and shin circumferences. Force measurements
are conducted to find out the physical inclinations of humans. “In general, force
is defined in relation to that exerted by the hand and foot. Moments of forces are
used as data applied to the design of hand and foot control systems” (Nowak,
2006).
To come back to the essentials, anthropometry is all about delivering impartial
and exact information about the somatic makeup of humans. Due to ontogenetic
developments in the body and its parts, there are periods of growth which is
documented by anthropometry to define transformations in the human body. It is
interesting to note that during the lifetime of a human being, the head measurement
becomes double, the trunk measurement becomes triple and limb measurement
increases between four and fivefold. The goal of anthropometry thus is not only
to find out the differences in the human body in terms of age but also in terms of
sex and the kind of somatic makeup observed. In case of men and women,
substantial distinctions are seen in terms of their somatic structures. For example,
generically women are found to be 8 to 15 % smaller than men.
On the basis of the secular trends, evolving styles in populations are predicted
and outlined with the help of anthropometry. This involves matters like
development acceleration and secular trend. Such occurrences exhibit major
variations between generations in many features like somatic, morphological
and functional. It is here that anthropometry defines these distinctions that are
observed in known populations. And it is through this that ergonomics makes
use of the data and builds products and materials attuned to the body shape and
structure. This innovation in ergonomics has culminated in the creation and use
of methods and measures utilised to anthropometry. And from this development
targeted at the needs of ergonomics has given rise to the relatively new ergonomic
anthropometry.
Hence we cannot discuss design anthropometry without an understanding of
ergonomics or its relationship with anthropometry. In fact ergonometric
anthropometry and design anthropometry complement each other and at times
can be seen as one and the same thing. Ergonomic anthropometry thrives to
make available information about the physical character of human beings so as
to assist the designing of work and living conditions. This agenda has contributed
to alterations in the current techniques and the creation of new methods.

Anthropometric and Physiological Dimensions and Practicing Anthropology
To cite some examples, for height measurements, the chief point of reference is
the horizontal area of the footrest, called Basis (B). The modification added to
such measurements is an additional vertical plane basis, called Basis dorsalis
(Bd). This has been added to facilitate the requirements of ergonomics. This
basis is used to determine the body dimensions in the sagittal plane. A body
which is measured in a sitting position, we now find in it the addition of two
reference points. One is the horizontal seat plane, i.e. Basis sedilis (Bs) and the
other is the Basis sedilis dorsalis (Bsd). Such additions have been developed in
ergonomic anthropometry in order to resolve concerns associated with the needs
of the designers and creators of mechanical appliances and equipments (Damon
et al. 1966; Bullock 1974; Nowak 1978).
In the early stages ergonomic anthropometry dealt with adult humans as their
main subject as initially ergonomics was only interested in the work environment
of humans. However with time as interests in ergonomics expanded to incorporate
newer areas like home ergonomics and leisure ergonomics, it became necessary
to seek help and benefit from the information present day anthropometry could
provide about the different stages of human growth. Children, young people,
and adults including the elderly are differentiated in anthropometry by using
ontogenetic periods as the criterion for categorisation. Anthropometry is well
endowed with ample measuring methods to study these groups. The various
kinds of measurements used are: length measurements for infants conducted in
the prone position with the help of a special kind of a liberometer. In adults, the
same measurement is conducted in the sitting position with the use of the vertical
anthropometer. There are methods of measuring which are conducted at a distance.
They are most suitable to both the investigator and the subject and are called as
non-tactile methods. This type of method is usually applied on disabled people
and was first practiced by a Swedish researcher named Thoren (1994) with the
use of a set of mirrors and cameras and connected to CAD/CAM software. Such
a non tactile method where there is use of cameras and softwares are called
photogrammetric methods. These methods assist to evaluate the malformations,
deviations and dislocations in the structure of the body. More advanced and
expensive methods are present to specify the shape and dimensions of a body
irrespective of the position of the body and the changes observed over time (Das
and Kozey, 1994).
Design anthropometry is also dependent on statistical methods. Individuals exhibit
a variety of body dimensions from tall to short and different body features ranging
from long to short boundaries. These characteristics are of course fo

                                                        Design Anthropometry

Source: Herron, R.E.’s chapter on “Anthropometry: Definition, Uses, and Methods of
Measurement” in the International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors (2006).
Though these equipments are plain and uncomplicated to look at, however they
are to be carefully and systematically applied to get adequate amount of
authenticity. It is necessary to have knowledge about the landmarks and how to
put the measuring appliance on the body. This needs to be done in a standard
way.
Over and above these traditional methods, new modern methods of measurements
have been introduced. In the few decades that have passed, anthropometric tools
have transformed drastically and have ushered in newer more sophisticated
mechanisms. These technologies have been much backed by the advances
achieved in computer and shape- sensing skills. Now instead of standard metallic
measuring devices used to measure body parts, 3D and 4D computations, image
models on computers and fractals are been made use of. These work with the
help of multidimensional sensing equipments which depicts the human form
and function in a better and subtler manner.
Newer changes in anthropometry began in the 1960s with the realisation that the
human body is uneven and exhibits a three dimensional dynamic body form.
This requires various innovative instruments and mathematical constructs to
obtain better results. So from the 1960s onwards we find more application of
mapping approaches, where contour and coordinates were used; mathematical
methodologies with the help of polynomials, nurbs, b-splines etc were used whch
helped to signify the uneven multidimensional body characteristics (Herron,
2006).
Conventional anthropometry was largely limited to surface measurements of the
body alone, with some restricted use of X-rays in the past. New technologies
like Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT), Positron
Emission Tomography (PET) etc have opened up new avenues for generating
new forms of collecting anthropometric data which was previously considered
to be not possible. Knowledge of body dimensions and movements of the internal
body can give vital data which can cater to ergonomic requirements. “For example,
it would certainly be helpful to know what happens to the geometry of internal
organs and systems during the performance of various tasks and when the body
adopts different postures” (ibid).

The 3D images and its processes of recording and instrumentation methods are
of immense help in designing and fitting purposes. It is found today that the uses
of not only 3D computer models but 4D too, are of great assistance to different
ergonomic applications. With the use of such imagery in cinema industry, interest
to produce better, precise and more adaptable computer generated models have
been designed for ergonomic usages. This method of designing anthropometry
has developed drastically and 3D and 4D images of human models now include
details of human form and function in access. This helps engineers and design
anthropometry experts to utilise them for anthropometric and ergonomic purposes.
We will try to understand more about the facilities that these computer generated
models provide in the section on uses of anthropometry.
Coming back to other methods and measurements of anthropometry, the
measurement of work space-envelope (area, surrounding etc) including diverse
occupational pursuits is a vital part of ergonomic design. The space-envelope
accessed by the body while doing a job is more than the space used by the body
itself. Today the methods used for the designing of work spaces which are
convenient for the body to work better, are the non-contact three dimensional
video imaging techniques. They are small, easy to handle and are affordable.
In terms of measurements, the strength of human beings is also an important
aspect in the designing of tools and equipments and many different ergonomic
functions. With good enough skill, proper and consistent strength information
may be collected with simple means, like the modern electronic dynamometers
and strain gauges.

1.4 USES OF DESIGN ANTHROPOMETRY
Anthropometry or anthropometric measurements are applied in an astonishingly
extensive type of specialised and mechanical areas, for example industrial design,
clothing design, forensics, architecture etc. In ergonomics itself, anthropometry
is employed to create designs for human use. Design anthropometry fundamentally
analyses the statistical information about the distribution of body measurements
among people to enhance and improve manufactured articles. The prime purpose
is to design products (like tools, workplaces and surroundings) in such a way
which will help people perform better and more efficiently. So it is the creation
of the best human worker, the tools (hardware and software), and the operative
background (physical and psycho-social) to augment human performance. This
match is known as the human- machine interface. Hence anthropometry in general
and design anthropometry in particular does play an important part in bringing
home the point that different bodily characteristics, like, size, shape, vigour,
grasp influence the manner in which people carry out their jobs and reveals in
order to perfect this, the human-machine connectivity has to be excellent. Besides
industrial and clothing design, design anthropometry is also applied in designing
furniture, surgical apparatus, farm appliances, aircraft controls etc. We may say
that design anthropometry deals with anything that exhibits a humanenvironmental
interaction.
This need for anthropometric data is now acknowledged by engineers, architects,
companies and designers alike while designing products for their users. And in
this, anthropologists with anthropometric knowledge can offer their skills. We
will find that there is great difference in application of anthropometric information
and measurements for dif Design Anthropometry ferent equipments or material. For example a casual tshirt may not require exact body measurements and can be created in
approximation. This we may call the “soft” fit whereas a scuba diving outfit
would be categorised within a “hard” fit as it has a purpose to fulfill and must
conform to the proper body dimension of a person, whether male or female.
Here the measurements of the outfit have to be precise as it involves safety and
comfort concerns underwater.
The role of anthropology with its provision for training in anthropometric
measurements thus provides attractive offerings in the form of private companies
and government organisations. From measurements on body parts to ascertaining
clothing sizes to other body gears, for example, creation and selling of shoes, all
involve expertise in anthropometric studies. We have elaborately mentioned the
3D processes of measurements above. These 3D scanners have interesting usages
in design anthropometry. Other than them, we provide an explanation of some
more attractive and beneficial usages below. In some cases it may be found that
3D laser scanning technologies are applied for reverse engineering and animation.
This is done for commercial purposes. 3D scanning creates a precise imitation
model in electronic or digitised format. In matters where bodies cannot be touched,
this provision is much convenient. It also involves minimum measurement time.
After conversion to digitised layout, it can be then introduced to free form
engineering Computer Aided Design (CAD) equipment to be created with the
use of procedures like Computer Numeric Control (CNC) machining, fused
deposition manufacture and stereolithography.The benefits of such measurements
to the anthropometrist are that with the absence of the real individual, the scan
can be measured at any time without any complications. 3D scanning has helped
in conducting of large number of national surveys.
Nowadays with the use of 3D scanners and statistical means like Principal
Component Analysis (PCA) and multivariate regression, body surface
investigation may be done in furniture manufacturing industries, which can help
in using digitised models for torso shapes to create chair and seat design. This
helps to offer secure and relaxed support for a huge gamut of the population for
which these are designed. Along with these, softwares are developed to obtain
torso data and to express the torso with even surface bend. The processes built
from basic anthropometric features like stature, body weight and gender, assists
in the improvement of office chair designs. The PCS and regression procedure
of analysing torso shape gives any sought pattern of body dimensions. Different
mixes of stature and body mass index can be noted for men and women to attain
boundary cases which can be used in the design of seats. The outcome can be
applied to evaluate the suitability, size and adjustability of products like seats,
chairs, clothing, shielding appliances etc. which can be eventually utilised by
different individuals of different body structures. Another example is the whole
body laser scanning which is used for body surface anthropometry investigation.
This scanner is primarily used to learn about the body shapes and their postures
when seated. Earlier whole-body laser scanning used to concentrate on standing
and uncorroborated seated position. However the outcome was not enough to
use in seat designing. Now with the new and better means of measuring and
scanning, models can be built, who can be used to envisage seated body shape
and posture for applications connected to crash safety.

Special scanning methods are used to study the seated position and body shape
of children. The data from these whole body scanners and hand held scanners
are combined along with the documentation of skeletal landmark sites. Here
both digital and manual methods are used and finally visual recognition of the
scanned information is done. This is known as whole body surface anthropometry
for children. The result is that, models of children body shape is understood to
use in the designing of products which includes safety, protective equipments
and clothing.
Another way anthropometric measurements come in use is by conducting the
adult whole body surface anthropometry model. Here a whole body three
dimensional surface prediction model is used. Here an amalgamated model using
samples of 2400 American adults (983 men and 1023 women) is used to envisage
body surface geometry, surface landmark positions and inner skeletal joint sites.
The model can be used by taking help of body dimensions like stature and body
weight. The desired result is gathered by keeping the stature and BMI (body
mass index) constant and the torso shape boundaries are deployed. People having
the same BMI may have variant body shapes. In men the basic distinction marker
is chest muscle mass vs. abdominal fat. In women torso body shapes are in contrast
in terms of fat accumulation. The result from the parametric model is the
conception of virtual populations. From this target populations can be used to
form both representative and boundary cases in three dimensions (http://
mreed.umtri.umich.edu/mreed/).
Measurements made with the use of computer supported design techniques, like
CT scan, and then images converted to models by taking geometric indicators
into consideration like the femoral head offset, femoral head center (HC), femoral
head diameter, femoral head relative position, position of shaft isthmus, neckshaft
angle, bow angle, femoral neck length, canal flare index, femoral length,
and canal width at various locations, can produce perfectly fitted femoral stems
for artificial attachment without cement (for hip joint replacement) (Rawal et al,
2012).
However in this discussion we must understand that what may be perfect for the
people of one country might not work for another. It is important that country
specific measurements are carried out on people to get the best out of design
anthropometry. This is an important factor in the study of populations.
For example in India, latest thorough and complete anthropometry of the entire
population is not clearly available. In terms of automotive design and related
design applications, anthropometric information of the people of the nation is
imperative. Nowadays seeing the amount of dedication being devoted towards
such perfect designs and comfort of all individuals, developing and
underdeveloped countries are also trying to do their best in spending their assets
through the years on creating databases. Such databases become useful to
companies and factories involved in designing, either automotive or others. In
India, some organisations in the past have been associated with projects which
emphasise areas of Indian anthropometry. SIZE INDIA is a project which has
come up in the recent past which has been created with the growth of industries
and a genuine need for India- centric designs, which demands an entry to the
newest and convincing anthropometric database (Kulkarni et al, 2011).

The uses of anthropometry Design Anthropometry , we find are many and varied.
Design anthropometry has also its importance in inclusive designing. Inclusive
designing can be defined as design typically involving the identification of a
need, creation of solutions to meet that need, and then a review to ensure that the
need is met. Consequently, when considering a design approach it is necessary
to also consider the measure of success, i.e. the point at which the design is
considered to have met the stipulated requirements. However, the stipulated
requirements themselves have the potential to exclude certain sections of the
population from using the resultant product. As an example, consider a kettle
that must boil a minimum volume of water and therefore has a minimum
associated weight with the water inside it. Users of the kettle will be required to
have enough strength to lift that minimum weight. Anyone not having such
strength will not be able to use the kettle, irrespective of other design decisions
made. A design anthropologist needs to look beyond the twin aims of designing
for the typical user and designing prostheses, making accessible interface for
older people. Effective application and interface design address the dynamic
diversity of human population. Older people have significantly different and
dynamically changing needs which require user sensitive inclusive designing.
Older people are different from young people and can be divided into three groups:
1) Fit older people, who do not appear – nor would consider themselves –
disabled, but whose functionality needs and wants are different to those they
had when they were younger.
2) Frail older people, who would be considered to have one or more
“disabilities”, often severe ones, but in addition, will have a general reduction
in many of their other functionalities and
3) Disabled people who grow older, whose long-term disabilities have affected
the ageing process, and whose ability to function can be critically dependent
on their other faculties, which may also be declining.
Other major characteristics of older people, when compared with their younger
counterparts, include:
• The individual variability of physical, sensory, and cognitive functionality
of people increases with increasing age.
• Older people may have significantly different needs and wants due to the
stage of their lives they have reached.
Also there is a need to design inclusive products to accommodate a number of
people experiencing a loss of functional capability and successful inclusive design
requires a balance between the demands a product makes of its users and user
capabilities along with a number of design metrics and data to enable their
evaluation. Design research tends to focus on accommodating single, primarily
major, capability losses. The reasons for this are two-fold. First, single major
impairments are often the most noticeable and therefore are the easiest to inspire
the necessary motivation to address them. Second, such impairments are the
easiest to understand and are comparatively easy to compensate for, as there are
no complex interactions with other capabilities. Unfortunately, many people do
not just have single functional impairments, but several. This is especially true
when considering older adults. Consequently, designers need to be aware of the

prevalence of not only single, but also multiple capability losses. Inclusive Design
approach incorporates a user capability range that does not configure an ‘average’
user. This has the advantage of enabling the manager and designer to consider all
potential users with multiple combinations of capabilities.
We now move to our next area of discussion where we will attempt to see how
anthropologists with anthropometric training can fit oneself into a career outside
academia in designing of various equipments.

1.5 PRACTICE OF DESIGN ANTHROPOMETRY

BYANTHROPOLOGISTS
It is of course difficult to plainly mention jobs or positions in which
anthropologists can practice the teachings of anthropometry to enhance their
career options. However there are non academic professions for students or
individuals suitably qualified and holding degrees in physical anthropology.
Beyond academic circles such researchers work for private and public agencies
where a variety of anthropometric studies, both traditional and modern are
conducted to ascertain different sizes to produce and manufacture equipments,
apparels, work stations, etc.
It is generally found that in companies or sectors connected to ergonomic or
design anthropometry, professionals trained in human engineering, ergonomics,
biomechanics, psychology etc., have always been the preferred choice. However,
this situation is changing, with more and more people with anthropological
background, been given the opportunity to exhibit their anthropometric skills.
Now anthropologists are professionally accepted in clothing industries, aerospace
industries, consultation firms etc. To better garner skills in anthropometry,
anthropologists interested in making out careers out of it, should also associate
themselves with specific professional courses on anthropometry, medical or health
areas, anatomy, genetics, nutrition, biostatistics, kinesiology, biomechanics,
human engineering etc. A strong mathematics and science education can help in
elevating the chances of success in professions associated to design
anthropometry. It is found that mostly in the private sectors anthropologists find
themselves working side by side with ergonomic experts and designers. In such
scenarios, the more proficient the anthropologist is in advanced anthropometric
abilities, the easier it becomes to work with experts. It is an added benefit if the
anthropologist has the ability to also excel or at least exhibit knowledge of research
documentation, proposal and report writing, computing and graphic designing
skills and to some extent accounting and supervising.
In the public and private sectors, an anthropologist looking for jobs with
anthropometric needs, it is beneficial if the anthropologist has knowledge of
taking measurements on a living body along with skeletal material. For taking
measurements and understanding the living human body, knowledge of nutrition
and physical education helps. Knowledge of statistics and computers also
increases chances of involving oneself in government or other agencies associated
with applied anthropometry, specialising in design or more. Added requirements
that can make an individual perform better in both private and public sectors are
interactive communicative knack, where deliberations of ongoing programmes,
projects etc. occur frequently with project heads, funders etc.

2.2 HUMAN CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND HEALTH STATUS

The cardiovascular system consists of an interconnected continuous vascular circuit containing a pump (heart), a high pressure distribution system (arteries), exchange vessels (capillaries) and a low pressure collection and return system (veins). Functionally, the heart consists of two separate pumps: the left heart receives blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs for aeration (pulmonary circulation) and the right heart accepts oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it throughout the body (systemic circulation). In other words, the heart provides the force to propel blood throughout the vascular circuit.

2.2.1 Blood Pressure

With each contraction of the left ventricle a surge of blood enters the aorta, distending the vessel and creating pressure within it. The force exerted by blood against the arterial walls during the cardiac cycle is known as blood pressure and reflect combined effect of arterial blood flow per minute (cardiac output) and resistance to that flow in the peripheral vasculature expressed as blood pressure = cardiac output × total peripheral resistance. The highest pressure generated during left ventricular contraction termed systole, reflects the systolic blood pressure. While during ventricular relaxation termed diastole, the aortic valve close and the natural elastic arterial recoil maintains a continuous pressure providing a steady blood flow into the periphery. The arterial pressure continually declines as blood flows. The lowest pressure reached during ventricular relaxation represents diastolic blood pressure. In a normal individual, systolic blood pressure varies between 110 and 130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure between 60 and 80 mmHg. However, arteries “hardened” by mineral and fatty deposits within their walls or arteries with excessive peripheral resistance to blood flow from kidney malfunction induce systolic pressures as high as 300 mmHg and diastolic pressures above 120 mmHg. Although there is a continuum of cardiovascular risk across levels of blood pressure, the classification of adults according to blood pressure provides a framework for differentiating levels of risk associated with various blood-pressure categories and for defining treatment thresholds and therapeutic goals (Vasan et al. 2001). According to the classification approaches developed by the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI) the adults may be categorised as per given in table 2.1. Table 2.1: Classification of blood pressure for adults Blood Pressure SBP (mmHg) DBP (mmHg) Classification Normal <120 and <80 Prehypertension 120–139 or 80–89 Stage 1 Hypertension 140–159 or 90–99 Stage 2 Hypertension >160 or >100 SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure 19 Physiological Anthropology In children and adolescents, hypertension is defined as BP that is, on repeated measurement, at the 95th percentile or greater adjusted for age, height, and gender (1). Decades of epidemiologic research has established elevated blood pressure as a major contributor of cardiovascular diseases (O’Donnell et al., 2002). Elevations in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure are associated with strong, continuous increases in risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and renal disease across a very broad range of blood pressure levels (Carolyn E. Barlow et al. 2004). Framingham Heart Study has indicated that blood pressure values between 130–139/85–89 mmHg are associated with a more than twofold increase in relative risk from cardiovascular disease (CVD) as compared with those with BP levels below 120/80mmHg (JNC, 2003). Worldwide, 7·6 million premature deaths (about 13·5% of the global total) and 92 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, 6·0% of the global total) were attributed to high blood pressure. Furthermore, it has become a common health problem globally as a consequence of increased longevity and prevalence of contributing factors such as obesity, physical inactivity and an unhealthy diet (WHO, 1983). High blood pressure imposes a chronic strain on normal cardiovascular function. If left untreated, severe hypertension leads to congestive heart failure as the heart muscle weakens and is unable to maintain its normal pumping ability. Degenerating, brittle vessels can obstruct blood flow, or can burst, cutting off vital blood flow to brain tissue and precipitate a stroke. Thereby, hypertension plays a major etiologic role in the development of cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, cardiac and renal failure. This burden is distributed over different economic regions, age groups, and blood-pressure levels and is certainly not limited to people with hypertension (Vasan et al. 2001). In addition, hypertension often coexists with other cardiovascular risk factors, such as tobacco use, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity, which compound the cardiovascular risk attributable to hypertension. Worldwide, these coexistent risk factors are inadequately addressed in patients with hypertension, resulting in high morbidity and mortality (WHO, 1983). Absolute risk of cardiovascular disease for any given level of blood pressure rises with age. The SBP continues to rise throughout life in contrast to DBP which rises until approximately age 50 and tends to level off over the next decade, and may remain the same or fall later in life. Thus, DBP is a more potent cardiovascular risk factor than SBP until age 50; thereafter, SBP is more important (JNC 7, 2003). An elevated systolic blood pressure provides a more reliable and accurate predictor of the risk associated with hypertension than diastolic blood pressure (Katch, 2007). In the context of this large and growing disease burden, strategies to improve population health require consistent and comprehensive measures of the contribution of major risk factors to premature mortality and disability.6,7 These estimates can elucidate the potential for prevention and provide an important input into health planning and other cost-utility decisions. Therefore, the importance of modifiable cardiovascular health risks, such as blood pressure, should not be overestimated or under estimated (Vasan et al. 2001). 20 Anthropometric and Physiological Dimensions and Practicing Anthropology Effective prevention strategies include lifestyle changes-regular physical activity, modest weight loss, stress management, smoking cessation, reduced sodium and alcohol consumption and adequate potassium, calcium and magnesium intake. Table 2.2: Lifestyle modifications to prevent and manage hypertension Modification Recommendation Approximate SBP Reduction† Weight reduction Maintain normal body weight (body 5–20 mmHg/10kg mass index 18.5–24.9 kg/m2). Adopt DASH Consume a diet rich in fruits,vegetables, 8–14 mmHg eating plan vegetables, and low-fat dairy products with a reduced content of saturated and total fat. Dietary sodium Reduce dietary sodium intake to no 2–8 mmHg reduction more than 100 mmol per day (2.4 g sodium or 6 g sodium chloride). Physical activity Engage in regular aerobic physical 4–9 mmHg activity such as brisk walking (at least 30 min per day, most days of the week). Moderation of Limit consumption to no more than 2–4 mmHg alcohol 2 drinks (e.g., 24 oz beer, 10 oz wine, consumption or 3 oz 80-proof whiskey)per day in most men, and to no more than 1 drink per day in women and lighter weight persons. DASH, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension; SBP, systolic blood pressure From The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure High levels of leisure-time physical activity have been associated with a reduced risk of hypertension. Exercise promotes weight reduction, decrease “bad” cholesterol levels in the blood (the low-density lipoprotein, LDL), as well as total cholesterol, and can raise the “good” cholesterol (the high-density lipoprotein level, HDL). When combined with other lifestyle modifications such as proper nutrition, smoking cessation, and medication use, it can dramatically reduce the risk. However, genetic factors contribute significantly to the inter-individual differences in endurance training-induced changes in blood pressure. Regular exercise controls the tendency for blood pressure to increase over time and relates more to prevent early mortality than to extending overall life span. During rhythmic muscular activity vasodilatation in the active muscles reduces total peripheral resistance to enhance blood flow through large portions of the peripheral vasculature. Increased blood flow rapidly increased systolic blood pressure during first few minutes of exercise and then levels off at 140 to 160 mmHg for healthy individual. As exercise continues, systolic blood pressure decline as the arterioles in the active muscle dilate, further reducing peripheral resistance to blood flow. Diastolic blood pressure remains unchanged throughout exercise. During maximum exercise, systolic blood pressure may increase to 21 200 mmHg or higher among healthy individual despite reduced total peripheral Physiological Anthropology resistance. This level of blood pressure most likely reflects heart large cardiac output during maximal exercise by individuals with high aerobic capacity. Upon completion of exercise blood pressure temporarily falls below pre-exercise levels which may last upto 12 hours. Such post exercise hypotension could be explained by the significant quantity of blood in visceral organs or skeletal muscle during recovery. Consequently, venous pooling reduces central blood volume and decreases arterial filling pressure and hence arterial blood pressure. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreases by 6 to 10 mmHg with aerobic exercise training in previously sedentary individuals. Relatively prolonged reductions in post-exercise blood pressure justify recommending multiple periods of physical activity interspersed throughout the day (McArdle et al., 2007). 2.2.2 Heart Rate The number of times a human heart beats per minute is known as the heart rate. Resting heart rate (RHR) is one of the simplest cardiovascular parameters, which usually averages 60 to 80 beats per minute (bpm), but can occasionally exceed 100 bpm in unconditioned, sedentary individuals and be as low as 30 bpm in highly trained endurance athletes. However, rates below 60 bpm referred to as bradycardia and rates above 100 bpm referred to as tachycardia are clinical heart disorders. Elevated heart rate (>80-85 beats/min) measured under resting conditions is directly associated with risk of developing hypertension and atherosclerosis, and is a potent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (Palatini P. 2007). Epidemiological evidences demonstrate that RHR, or its corollaries, namely post-exercise heart rate recovery, which is mediated primarily by vagal tone, and heart rate variability (HRV, beat-to-beat variability also mediated by autonomic nervous system, especially parasympathetic) correlates with cardiovascular morbidity and suggests that RHR determines life expectancy (Cook et al, 2006). Heart rate proves to be the best predictor after myocardial infarction, in patients with congestive heart failure, as well as in patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension (Disegni et al, 1995; Hathaway et al, 1998). Resting heart rate both contributes to and reflects cardiac pathology. Increased heart rate, due to imbalances of the autonomic nervous system with increased sympathetic activity or reduced vagal tone, has an impact on perfusion-contraction matching, which is the dynamic that regulates myocardial blood supply and function. In the healthy heart, increased metabolism as a result of increased contractile function results in increased myocardial blood flow and, to a lesser degree, increased oxygen extraction. In the presence of coronary artery disease, perfusion-contraction mismatching is localised to areas of inadequate supply. When coronary artery inflow is inadequate to meet demands, contractile and diastolic functions in the affected area are correspondingly reduced. An increase in heart rate results not only in an increase in myocardial oxygen demands, but also a potential impairment of supply resulting from a reduction of collateral perfusion pressure and collateral flow. This imbalance may promote ischemia, arrhythmias and ventricular dysfunction, as well as acute coronary syndromes, heart failure or sudden death (Arnold et al. 2008) 2.2.3 Pulse Rate The stretch and subsequent recoil of the aorta wall propagates as a wave through the entire arterial system. The pressure wave readily appears as pulse in the 22 Anthropometric and Physiological Dimensions and Practicing Anthropology following are: the superficial radial artery on the thumb side of the wrist, the temporal artery and carotid artery. In healthy persons, pulse rate equals heart rate. 2.3 CARDIO-RESPIRATORY FITNESS It is generally considered the most important component of health related fitness (Giam Choo Keong, 1981) and remains a significant predictor of hypertension risk (McArdle et al., 2007). It is defined as the ability of the cardiorespiratory system to respond adequately and safely to the blood, oxygen and other nutritional requirements of the body organ and tissues, particularly the working muscle during physical activity. Higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) often neutralises increased mortality associated with elevated blood pressure and reduce risk of developing hypertension among healthy normotensive persons. In other words, higher incidences of hypertension have been demonstrated among individuals with low fitness compared with fit individuals (Aina Emaus et al. 2011). 2.4 PHYSICAL FITNESS AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE TESTS Physical Fitness: It is the ability to meet the demands of life with vigour and alertness without undergoing fatigue and to have sufficient energy beyond this to enjoy leisure time’s activities. Physical performance tests are conducted to analyse a person’s fitness level. 2.4.1 Methods to Access Physical Fitness i) Direct Calorimeter ii) Treadmill Concept iii) Ergometer Test iv) Step Test i) Direct Calorimeter: The calorie is the basic unit of heat measurement and the term calorimetry defines the measurement of heat transfer. There are 2 types of approaches of calorimetry: a) Direct b) Indirect: i) Open Circuit Spirometry ii) Closed Circuit Spirometry: This method has the ability to directly measure oxygen consumption. The subject breathes 100% oxygen from a purified container. The equipment is closed system because the subject-breathes in only the gas in the spirometer, soda lime removes the expired air’s carbon di oxide. ii) Treadmill Test: The objective of the test is to monitor the development of athlete’s general endurance & to calculate vo2 max through vo2 submax. Vo2 Max: It is defined as the maximum capacity of an individual body to transport 23 & utilise oxygen during incremental exercise which reflects the physical Physiological Anthropology fitness of the individuals. This indicates an individual’s capacity for aerobically resynthesising ATP. Vo2 Submax: Vo2 max has many risks as a person is not aware that he may have heart problem, Vo2 submax are those levels where one does not reach the maximum of respiratory and cardiovascular system. Example: Balke’s modified Treadmill Test. iv) Step Test: It is used to measure the energy output of the given subject by checking the response of heart rate and to find the rapid fitness index. Example: Harvard step test- it was developed by Broucher et al in 1943 at Harvard fatigue laboratory during World War II. The fitness is accessed with the help of Rapid Fitness Index (RFI) which reads as: Test duration in seconds RFI= ———————————————— × 100 5.5 × pulse count between 1 – 1.5 mins Depending upon the RFI (Rapid Fitness Test) value, a person’s physical fitness can be categorised into the following: Age Group Physical Fitness Below 55 Poor 56-64 Average 65-79 Average 80-89 Good Above 90 Excellent Recovery heart rate from a standardised stepping exercise can classify individuals according to level of cardiovascular fitness assessed on the basis of VO2max with a reasonable degree of accuracy. The individual steps to a four-step cadence, upup-down-down continuously for 3 minutes on a wooden bench 16¼ inch high. Metronome was used to monitor the stepping cadence, which was set at 88 beats per minute (22 complete steps per minute) for females and 96 beats per minute (24 complete steps per minute) for males. The step test begins after a brief demonstration and practice period. Prior to the test, subjects warm up by stretching lower limb muscles and brisk walking. After completion of test, subjects remains standing while pulse rate was measured for 15 seconds period, 5 to 20 seconds into recovery. 15 seconds recovery heart rate is converted to beats per minute (15 s HR x 4) and estimates VO2max using equation: Males: VO 2max = 111.33 – [0.42 × Step-test pulse rate (b.min-1)] Females: VO2max = 65.81 – [0.1847 × Step-test pulse rate (b.min-1)] Sports performance is based in a complex and intricate diversity of variables, which include range of factors including physiological, anthropometric dimensions, reflecting body shape, proportionality and composition, biomechanical and skill traits within different sports. For example in swimming 24 Anthropometric and Physiological Dimensions and Practicing Anthropology body fat gives greater bounce to swimmers and contributes to improved efficiency by decreasing hydrodynamic drag. Fat layer acts as thermal insulator to preserve body heat in the water, despite high rate of heat production during competition (Norton et al., 1996). Regardless of the sport discipline, on average, athletes are less fat and more muscular than non-athletes are. 2.5 ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN CARDIORESPIRATORY FUNCTION TRAITS In physiological anthropology, we study the adaptation of human cardiorespiratory function with different environmental condition i.e. heat, cold and high altitude. i) Adaptation to Heat or Hot Climate: when temperature of environment is more than the body, then it is called heat stress. Heat loss occurs by 4 processes1) Radiation 2) Conduction 3) Convection 4) Evaporation 1) Radiation – All objectsincluding humans continuously emit electromagnetic heat waves (radiant energy). Our body usually remain warmer than the environment, making the exchange of radiant heat energy, move through the air to solid and cools down objects in the environment. This form of heat transfer does not require molecular contact between objects. The body absorbs radiant heat energy from the surroundings when a person’s temperature exceeds skin temperature. 2) Conduction – Heat exchange by conduction involves direct heat transfer from one molecule to another through a liquid, solid or gas. The circulation transports most body heat to shell, but a small amount continually moves by conduction directly through the deep tissues to the cooler surfaces. The rate of conductive heat loss depends on two factorsa) Temperature gradient between skin and the surroundings surface. b) Thermal qualities of the surfaces. 3) Convection – The convection depends on how rapidly the air (adjacent to the body) exchanges once it warms. If air movement or convection proceeds slowly, the air next to the skin warms and acts as a zone of insulation, which minimises further conductive heat loss. Heat loss through convection increases because it continuously replaces the zone of insulation. Another mechanism of radiating body heat is vasodilation. In vasodilation, capillaries near the skin’s surface widen to permit increased blood flow to skin. The visible effect is increased redness of the skin, particularly of the face. 4) Evaporation – Water vaporising from the respiratory passages and skin surface continuously transfers heat to the environment. For example- the body’s surface contains 2-4 million sweat glands. During heat stress, these 25 eccrine glands secrete large quantities of hypotonic saline solution (Nacl). Physiological Anthropology Evaporation of sweat from the skin exerts a cooling effect. The cooled peripheral blood flow then flows to the deeper tissues to absorb additional heat on its return to the heart. ii) Adaptation to Cold Climate: Body adapts in cold climate by combined factors i.e. increase heat retention & enhance heat production. Out of the two, heat retention is more efficient because it requires less energy and this is derived from dietary sources. a) Increased metabolic rate and shivering- These are short term responses to cold climate, both of which generate body heat for a short time. b) Vasoconstriction- It restricts heat loss and conserves energy. In addition, human process a subcutaneous fat layer (beneath skin) that provides an insulative layer throughout the body and conserves heat within the body. It also restricts capillary blood flow to the surface of the skin, thus reducing heat loss at the body surface. c) Vasoconstriction and vasodilation- The compromise provides periodic warmth to the skin that helps in preventing frostbite in below freezing temperatures. At the same time, because vasodilation is intermittent, energy loss is restricted with more heat retained at the body’s core. iii) Adaptation to High Altitude- High altitudes are defined between 3048 meters (m) (10,000 ft) to 5486 m (18,000ft) above sea level. It is a multi stressor environment including hypoxia, nutritional stress and cold radiation. The adaptive responses that improve one’s tolerance to altitude hypoxia are broadly termed acclimatisation. The longer term acclimatisation process involves physiologic and metabolic adjustments that greatly improve tolerance to altitude hypoxia. The main adjustments involve (1) restabilising the acid- base balance of the body fluids, (2) increased formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells and, (3) changes in local circulation and cellular function. (Mcardle & Katch, 2007) 2.6 IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION ON CARDIORESPIRATORY FUNCTIONS Over the last decade, accumulating epidemiological and clinical evidence has led to a heightened concern about the potential deleterious effects of ambient air pollution on pulmonary and cardiovascular system depending on the physical and chemical properties of contaminants, time and frequency of exposure. The concerned environmental air pollutants include carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, ozone, lead, and particulate matter (“thoracic particles” [PM10], “fine particles” [PM2.5] “coarse particles” [PM10 to 2.5]). These pollutants are associated with increased hospitalization and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, especially in persons with congestive heart failure, frequent arrhythmias, or both (Brook et al., 2004). The cardiac effects are a consequence of inflammation in the lung, leading to the release of cytokines with secondary effects on blood constituents interfering with coagulability and stability of atheromatous plaques (Seaton et al, 1995). The lung inflammation is a consequence not of the mass but of the number of particles, particularly those in the ultrafine (<100 nm) size 26 Anthropometric and Physiological Dimensions and Practicing Anthropology range. It has the potential to explain both short-term morbidity and also longerterm atherogenesis. Other hypothesis, suggests that inhalation of air pollutants might trigger reflex changes in the control of the heart (Ayres, 2006). Increased parasympathetic activity normally leads to coronary vasodilation, in the presence of coronary artery disease, parasympathetic stimulation may lead to net coronary constriction. (Pope et al., 2004). Accelerated heart rate, diminished heart rate variability (HRV), and increased incidence of arrhythmias on exposure to air pollution suggest the primary effects on myocardial excitability or autonomic regulation of the heart or both. Lung function, as measured by spirometry is an excellent operative marker of the effects of air pollution. It is objective and quantitative, an early predictor of cardio-respiratory morbidity and mortality, able to describe trajectories to the occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and coherent with experimental data on deposition and accumulation of pollutants in airways and lungs and the resulting systemic inflammation and oxidative stress (Sunyer, 2009). Understanding and quantifying the contributions of environmental exposures to lung disease is difficult because individuals respond differently to the same factors. The variations in response arise from different susceptibilities, including genetic predisposition, developmental stages of life, presence of co-existing diseases, other exposures, and lifestyle differences such as varying nutritional status and physical activity levels.Long-term exposure to smoke or dust damages the lung airways and air sacs, and may eventually cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) indicated by FEV1 less than 0.80. COPD is characterised by chronic inflammation throughout the airways, parenchyma, and pulmonary vasculature. People with COPD usually have a combination of two conditions: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. In chronic bronchitis the airways become inflamed and their walls thicken, so that the air passage narrows down (Figure 2.1).

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The damaged airways also produce a lot of thick, sticky mucus which causes frequent coughing. In emphysema, destruction of lung parenchyma leads to the loss of elastic recoil and alveolar septa which increases the tendency for airway collapse. The combination of these two conditions obstructs airflow through the lungs and the individual becomes increasingly breathless and fatigued. The damage caused to the lungs is irreversible, and the condition is progressive; that is, the damage gradually accumulates and the symptoms worsen. Indoor air pollution from biomass fuel, burned for cooking and heating in poorly vented dwellings, has also been implicated as a risk factor for the development of COPD. The long term adverse effect of air pollution on lungs has been evident among children during their development. Cumulative pollution related deficits in the average growth in lung function results in a strong association between exposure to air pollution and a clinically low FEV at the age of 18 years. FVC is largely a function of the number and size of alveoli, with differences in volume primarily attributable to differences in the number of alveoli, since their size is relatively constant. However, since the postnatal increase in the number of alveoli is complete by the age of 10 years, pollution related deficits in the growth of FVC and FEV1 during adolescence may, in part, reflect a reduction in the growth of alveoli. Another plausible mechanism of the effect of air pollution on lung development is airway inflammation, such as occurs in bronchiolitis; such changes have been observed in the airways of smokers and of subjects who lived in polluted environments (Gauderman et al. 2004). 27 Physiological Anthropology Fig. 2.1: The lungs are filled with a network of airways and air sacs In COPD, damage to the lungs results in narrowing of the airways and destruction of the walls of the air sacs. There is negative dose-dependent association between various outdoor exposures and lower levels of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ), forced vital capacity, and maximal mid-expiratory flow rate. The short-term negative impact of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory volume and flow is limited to individuals with already impaired respiratory function. Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) including asthma, ischemic heart diseases (IHD), congestive heart failure, heart rhythm disorders, and diabetes are “frail” population susceptible to the acute effects of air pollution. Decrements in lung function indices (FVC and/or FEV1 ) associated with increasing concentrations.

2.6.1 Impact of Smoking on Cardio-respiratory

Functions Of all inhalational exposures, cigarette smoking is the major factor which contributes to the risk of pulmonary diseases in most countries. When the tobacco leaf is burnt, the smoker is exposed to over 4,000 chemicals, a number of them being carcinogenic affecting almost all organs. Many other organic and inorganic chemicals in the gaseous, volatile, and particulate phases of cigarette smoke appear to contribute to smoke’s toxicity to the respiratory system, including hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, organic acids, phenols, cyanides, acrolein, and nitrogen oxides. Cigarette smokers have a higher prevalence of lung-function abnormalities and respiratory symptoms, a greater annual rate of decline in FEV1 , and higher death rates for COPD than nonsmokers. The patient will have a reduced FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio.Cigarette smoke is toxic to the cilia that line the central breathing passages. Some components contribute to the development of chronic mucus hypersecretion in the central airways, whereas others play a greater role in the 28 Anthropometric and Physiological Dimensions and Practicing Anthropology production of emphysematous injury to the peripheral air sacs. Smoking also induces abnormalities in the inflammatory and immune systems within the causing inflammatory cells to produce an enzyme called elastase, which in turn breaks down elastin, an important protein that lines the elastic walls of the air sacs (Fera et al. 1986; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1984). Moreover, oxidants present in cigarette smoke can inactivate a separate protective enzyme called alpha,-antitrypsin, which inhibits the destructive action of elastase. Smoking during pregnancy may also pose a risk for the fetus, by affecting lung growth and development in utero and possibly the priming of the immune system. Cigarette smoking is a major contributing cause to coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and other atherosclerotic diseases of the circulatory system. The relationship between cigarettes consumption and relative risk of coronary heart disease appears to be independent of other factors such as raised serum cholesterol, hypertension, obesity and physical inactivity. Smokers are at two fold increased risk of CHD than non-smokers. Nicotine, the major psychoactive component of smoke, increases heart rate and blood pressure via stimulation of autonomic nerves. It affects cholesterol metabolism by lowering the level of protective high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and increasing bad cholesterol low density lipoprotein (LDL). Nicotine damages the inner lining of blood vessels, thus enhancing the transfer of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol particles across the arterial wall and development of cholesterol-laden plaque. Furthermore, smokers have elevated levels of thrombin, an enzyme that causes the blood to clot. The adherence of blood platelets to the lining of arterial blood vessels and the formation of blood clots narrow down artery (Willett et al., 1983; Pittilo et al., 1984; Penn et al., 1994). Carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke binds to the haemoglobin in red blood cells, thereby reducing the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

2.6.2 Impact of Occupation on Cardio-respiratory

Function Occupational lifetime exposure to dust, fumes, endotoxin, organic dusts, and sensitising agents evaluated in the general population have found to be associated with airway hyper-responsiveness, chronic bronchitis and airflow obstruction. The effect of occupational exposure on lung function is related with the duration of exposure. When the exposures are sufficiently intense or prolonged, occupational dusts and chemicals (vapours, irritants, fumes) can cause COPD independently of cigarette smoking and increase the risk of the disease in the presence of concurrent cigarette smoking. The airways, from nares to alveoli, come into contact with 14,000 litres of air in the workplace during a 40-hour work week. Physical activity can increase ventilation, and thus exposure to contaminants, up to 12 times the levels at rest. As ventilation increases, breathing shifts from nasal to a combination of oral and nasal, allowing a greater volume of air to bypass the cleansing nasopharynx and further increasing the exposure of the lower airways to inhaled materials. Strong irritants (such as ammonia) produce an aversive response, whereas materials with little sensory effect (such as asbestos) can be inhaled for prolonged periods and result in serious injury (Beckett, 2000). It has also been suggested that the occurrence of respiratory symptoms represents the earliest response and a risk factor for subsequent loss of pulmonary function. Cumulative exposure to dust and increasing working years in specific jobs have 29 been associated with a steeper decline in FEV1 (Jaén et al., 2006). The spirometric Physiological Anthropology parameters estimate among individuals exposed to ambient levels of particulate matter/dust shows dose-response relationships more pronounced for forced vital capacity (FVC) compared to forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1). Forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) is the volume of air (expressed in litres) exhaled in the first second of the FVC manoeuvre, and it is decreased in obstructive lung diseases while restrictive lung diseases decrease FVC. Forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FMEF or FEF25-75%) is the rate of flow of air between 25% and 75% of the FVC. It is a sensitive measurement and is determined from forced expiratory spirogram. It is reduced in early obstruction involving the smaller airways, which are the primary site of deposition of inhaled pollutants (Jafary et al. 2007). Such relationship between occupational exposure and overshift changes in lung function has been documented in different occupational set up such as coal mine, textile factory, grain processing and animal feed industry etc. Barometric pressure is elevated in deep underground mines and reduced at high altitude mines. Chronic intermittent hypoxia at altitude has been reported to induce physiological adaptations and symptoms of benign acute mountain sickness (AMS) in mine workers while increased barometric pressures in deep mines increase air temperatures, increase convective heat exchange and reduce sweat evaporation rates.Ambient exposure to particulate matter air pollution such as silica dust, asbestos or welding fumes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It has been proposed that inhalation of small particles induces an inflammatory reaction in the airways and subsequent induction of systemic inflammation and coagulation disturbances (Seaton et al. 1999). Intermittent exposure to magnetic field leads to reduction in heart rate variability and arrhythmia. Heart rate variability is a marker of autonomic cardiac control, and reductions in heart rate variability have been shown to predict sudden death, all-cause mortality, and heart disease in prospective epidemiologic studies (Håkanssonet al. 2003)

KINANTHROPOMETRY

3.1 INTRODUCTION
The early 1970s witnessed emergence of a new scientific discipline called
Kinanthropometry. Kinanthropometry comprises of three Greek words kinein
(to move), anthropos (man) and metrein (to measure) referring to the dynamic
relationship and quantitative interface between human structure and function. It
is defined as the study of human size, shape, proportion, composition, maturation,
gross function and cardiorespiratory function, which enables to understand
growth, exercise, performance, and nutrition. Ever since that time
kinanthropometry has grown to be an all-encompassing scientific interest; with
the application in research related to auxology, physical anthropology, human
biology, physical education, sports science and medical science. Dynamic
anthropometry, sports anthropometry, physiological anthropometry all these terms
used by different scientists can be contained in the sphere of kinanthropometry.
The predominant focus is on obtaining detailed measurements of the body
composition of individuals for application in varied fields.
Kinanthropometry is a medium for individuals to contribute to basic research
and applications and is closely associated to physical education, sports science
and medicine, human biology, science of growth, physical anthropology,
gerontology, ergonometry, and other several disciplines. It is a scientific
specialisation dealing with body measurements in a variety of morphological
perspectives, its application to movement and those factors which influence
movement, including: components of body build, composition, proportions, shape
and maturation; cardio – respiratory capacities and motor abilities; physical
activities including recreational activity as well as highly specialised sports
performance.

3.2 APPLICATIONS OF KINANTHROPOMETRY
The application of kinanthropometry holds significant position in various fields.
Kinanthropometry is adjudged as the specialisation of science concerned with
the measurement of human body composition and is considered as the cross
point between anatomy and movement. In its application it involves a series of
human body measurements and the data thus gathered directly or calculated are
used to produce various indices to describe physique. Keeping in view the
changing lifestyle, nutrition, activity levels and ethnic composition of populations,
changes in the distribution of body dimensions are forever occurring. This is
where kinanthropometry plays a significant role by using human body
measurement and determining its capability for function and movement in a
range of setting.
Kinanthropometry is analogous to mechanistic approach to human motion i.e.
anthropometry. However, the studies in kinanthropometry are confined to width,
length and girth measurements instead of alterations that arise in the human
physique out of physical training.
The contribution of kinanthropometry lies in solving problems related to growth,
nutrition, exercise and performance. It is concerned with the application of
measurement to assess human size, shape, proportion, composition, maturation
and function. It puts an athlete into objective focus and gives a clear evaluation
of the individual structural status or provides for quantification of differential
growth and training influences. Without understanding growth of individuals
and their structural evolution, selection of talent and monitoring of training would
not be productive. Kinanthropometry provides the indispensable structural basis
for the consideration of athletic performance.
Kinanthropometry has been widely used in predicting the increasing secular trend
in body size of people and among different populations world-wide. The criteria
developed for this research can be used as standards for recruitment in disciplined
forces, as well as for streamlining and improving the basic measurement scale
for the manufacture of uniforms and equipments.
The human body has been studied for thousands of years, but the introduction of
the concept of body compartments study and a progression from the study of
corpses led to the increasingly accurate quantification of the living human
physique. As a result of increasingly precise evaluation of human body there has
been development of numerous theories, advanced approaches and techniques,
and inventions of sophisticated instruments. There are various concepts that lead
to further understanding of the human physique. Kinanthropometry along with
anthropometry, somatotyping, human anatomy and physiology is one such
method. Somatotyping is one of the most useful methods of evaluating human
physique. It is a physique classification system of quantified expression
description and describes the physical characteristics of the body and allows a
definition of body type through the analysis of its components. Somatotype is
the description of body type based on three components of endomorphy,
mesomorphy and ectomorphy. Endomorphy is the relative fatness; mesomorphy
is the relative musculo-skeletal robustness, while ectomorphy is the relative
linearity or slenderness of a physique. A somatotype is usually given as a
composite of three numbers, in which each number demonstrates the strength of

The Heath-Carter method defines somatotype as a quantitative description of the present shape and composition of human
body. The most widely used somatotyping method is that of Heath and Carter
which is the classical method of anthropometric somatotype. The technique of
somatotyping is used to evaluate body shape and composition. Therefore,
somatotyping together with application of kinanthropometry could benefit other
fields like the clothing industry by improving the traditional sizing systems by
means of reference to the structure and function of the human body.
In the current scenario, the growth of sports and physical education of any country
is much dependent on the development of sport sciences which have contributed
significantly in the developed countries. Kinanthropometry is one such science
in this context. Combining the integral approach using both applied and basic
sciences the standard of sports and competitive performance can be developed.
The field of kinanthropometry in recent years holds a very significant role. The
importance of morphological characteristics in the performance of sports events
has certainly been recognised. It becomes imperative to study the morphology of
sportspersons in order to make an assessment of how close their physique and
morphology is with respect to the champions at various levels. The physique of
the Olympic players can be considered to be ideal in their respective events.
Nevertheless, just about every time the new records are being set up, there comes
up reports on humans getting bigger, larger and maturing faster during more
than ten decades. This implies that the most desirable physique of today may not
exactly be so in future, however, with no compromise on muscularity.
The investigations through kinanthropometry are of fundamental significance in
creating the pre-requisite as well as trainable characteristics of sportspersons
and athletes. Stature, leg length, arm length etc do not seem to change under
normal circumstances. Therefore, athletes in a particular sport need to have
such distinctive characteristics which would benefit him/her during the game. It
has been documented that the accomplishment of these characteristics will aid
an athlete to perform better during competition. The information provided can
be used as a norm for assessing the performance status.
The performance in any event of sports is a result of multifaceted and complicated
range of variables, which include variety of factors including physiological,
biomechanical and skill traits within different sports. The anthropometric
dimensions of an athlete specifying body shape, proportionality and composition,
are factors that contribute to play vital role in shaping the probability for success
in a chosen sport among elite athletes. Hence, it can be said with conviction that
athletes with ideal body type for a particular sport will remain competitive. The
characteristic body shape which we observe within sports today are a consequence
of both natural selection of thriving body type over consecutive generations, and
an adaptation to the training demands within the present generations. It is here
that kinanthropometry which is concerned with the study of body composition,
somatotype and proportionality play a pivotal role for athletic training and
selection of talented persons. In unison these three characteristics explain an
individual’s morphological profile, which provides as a foundation for planning
and monitoring athletic training. Despite the fact that sports performance are
reliant on several factors, and winning an event requires much more than an
individual player’s build and physical fitness, yet the anthropometric
characteristics of the most successful athletes may serve as a guide in selection Kinanthropometry of talented probable.
Body composition refers to the categorisation of body weight in terms of absolute
and relative amounts of fat mass and fat-free mass. Estimation and evaluation of
these characteristics constitute a very important facet of health, nutritional status
and physical fitness assessment. As mentioned earlier, somatotype is a
classification of the human body comprising to the three essential elements:
endomorphy, or relative adiposity; mesomorphy or relative musculoskeletal
development; and ectomorphy or relative human linearity. The relationship
between different body dimensions and stature are described by human
proportionality. This is an extremely vital concern for any person who wishes to
practice sports. This holds significance given that this relationship is linked with
a person’s physical ability to meet the biomechanical demands of a particular
sport or even playing position within a given sport. It is established that athletic
skill and feat, as well as propensity for a particular sport, depend greatly on
proportionality.

3.3 KINANTHROPOMETRY AND ANTHROPOMETRY
Since athletic performance for a particular sport, depend greatly on proportionality,
the role of anthropometry is vital as it is where we can attain an account of the
physical dimensions of athletes through it and then evaluate the relative meaning
of these body dimensions by comparing two aspects. Using for example the
mean of the anthropometric variable for the athletes and comparing this to other
reference populations. These investigations assist us to enumerate the value of
characteristic body structures and to recommend functional advantage for athletes
in particular sports. The bright side of such results would show, more the mean
of the sport resemble the mean of the population, more are the chances of potential
pool of athlete from which to select.
The commonly used measures for anthropometric profile for athletes giving highperformance
are stature, sitting height to stature ratio, upper limb length to stature
ratio, brachial index (ratio of length of the forearm to length of upper arm) and
level of body fatness assessed using the sum of skinfold, wasit hip ratio, waist
height ratio and body mass. Let us understand each of these.
Stature plays an important role in the success of any sport event. An excellent
example showing the magnitude of the interaction of height and other
physiological performance can be best understood in running events. Have you
ever noticed that as one moves from the shorter distance races to the marathon;
that is at both the extremes; in terms of height of the athletes, most of them are
short? What could be the reason for it? The shorter distances have a comparatively
longer acceleration segment and consequently slightly low mean speed which
support shorter athlete with relatively short legs whereas in longer distance, excess
muscle mass is hindrance, necessitating substantial energy to be exhausted for
its transportation and yet has relatively low power production. This, demands
the athletes to be typically small lean and have low body mass index. Short
stature is predominantly favourable in acceleration and changing direction. It
permits decrease in moments of inertia which owing to conservation of angular
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Anthropometric and
Physiological Dimensions
and Practicing Anthropology
momentum throughout angular motion make easy increased angular velocity.
Thus, smaller athlete can spin faster achieving more turn than tall athletes and
are beneficial for events such as gymnasts, skating ballet and diving. Nevertheless,
some pressure is manoeuvred towards selection of bigger athletes as they are
competent requiring a relatively lower energy cost per distance travelled. It is
known that maximum force produced by body is proportional to cross-sectional
area of each muscle and since muscle and bone of smaller athletes are stronger
in proportion to body weight, it gives them more agility and are less likely to get
injured from high velocities activities and hard landing resulting from sports
such as rock climbing, ski jumping etc.
It is not that tall stature does not have any importance in sports. Sports such as
volley ball, basket ball, rowing etc. are favourable to tall statured athletes. Tall
players’ requirement is to take jump lower relative to percentage of their stature;
this facilitates them to reach above net height for the ball.
Sitting height to stature ratio gives a suggestion of the relative length of the legs
to stature. The extremes in the ratio are found for athletes in sports requiring
upper body segments such as wrestling and weightlifters. Sports such as volley
ball, basketball etc which has the component of jumping need relatively short
trunks. Successful rowers have proportionally longer limbs and shorter sitting
height which provide a mechanical advantage during competition by allowing
longer stroke length. Additionally shorter sitting height lessens front surface area,
a source of resistance to moment.
Upper limb to stature ratio is negatively correlated with sitting height to stature
ratio. This means that individuals who have relatively long trunks will have
relatively short arms. Longer arms are beneficial as they mechanically present
longer stroke length useful in swimming and rowing. In throwing events it also
gives the athlete a longer lever to accelerate an object. Long arms exploit the
release velocity of the object, giving the largest distance for amount of muscle
mass. Athletes such as shot putters, javelin or discus throwers who need a single
and large push also benefit by this sort of relationship. As per the understanding
of many researchers greater shoulder width and arm length could be an advantage
in throwing tasks. In case of swimming strokes it is the shoulder joint that provides
the majority of propulsive force.
Brachial index is represented as length of forearm relative to the upper arm. A
high brachial index, in general, is beneficial for sports in which longer propulsive
drive of the forearm is desirable. A high brachial index facilitates for longer
stroke length, since the forearm is a longer lever resulting in increasing the velocity
of the hand at the end of the stroke. It contributes as an important factor in
throwing sports as javelin and discus where the athlete wants to have the thrown
object at the highest possible velocity the moment it leaves the hand; on the
other hand, a lower than average brachial index present better strength and
stability, whereas an athlete who has a low brachial index tends to have short
force arms which benefit in athletics such as shot put in which an immensely
strong push is needed. This arises since the muscle mass is more concentrated in
the arm.
Body mass and body fatness too play a vital role in certain sports events. Take
the case of rowing. It is purely the forward motion of the shell or boat which is
39
Kinanthropometry the absolute power that the oarsperson generates. In the throwing events, body
mass is one of the factors responsible for performance, along with the acceleration
of the implement prior to its release. But the work capacity decrease with the
increase in body fat as the increased body fat acts as dead weight. In sports
which essentially require speed or explosive power e.g. sprinting or jumping,
excess fat will increase the body mass and decrease acceleration. In view of the
fact that heat generated in the course of increased metabolism of the working
muscle ought to be lost via evaporation, convection and radiation, the body surface
area to body mass ratio is of great meaning in the efficiency of heat dissipation.
As observed in leaner counterparts, the heat loss is more effective when the ratio
is higher. The amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of a
given mass of adipose tissue is lower than that of fat free mass due to the fact
that there is difference in water content. A given heat load consequently increase
the temperature more in over fat than their leaner counterparts.
Nonetheless, in swimming, body fat provides greater bouncy to swimmers and
adds to enhance efficiency by decreasing hydrodynamic drag. This is due to the
fact that fat layer acts as thermal insulator to conserve body heat in the water, in
spite of high rate of heat production during competition. Not considering the
type of sport discipline, on an average, athletes are less fat and more muscular
than non-athletes.
It is realised that body weight does not convey the total picture regarding the
fitness of sportspersons. In most of the sports there is lesser requirement of extra
fat providing greater mass of muscles and bones. It has been observed that those
athletes have been found to be superior in performance in sports like football,
shot-put and weight lifting. Athletes who possess considerable amount of adipose
tissue have increased energy demands due to inert weight of fat, consequently,
rendering the work more difficult to carry out in endurance activities where the
body has to move longer with greater weight. This could perhaps be reason for
long distance runners to be less fatter than other runners in lower level competition.
It thus becomes evident that body fat plays an important role in sportspersons
which needs to be determined.
Lean tissue and subcutaneous tissue have vital function to play in physical
performance. These two components are known to influence physical performance
and vice versa which means that the participation of an individual in demanding
physical activity increases or decreases the amount of lean and subcutaneous
tissue. Generally it is observed that in players subcutaneous tissue is less and
lean tissue is more. Also, due to the nature of activity in the field it is observed
that the two components may differ even among the players of the same game.
Let us take hockey as an example. Among hockey players lean tissues play
significant role in forward halves because more muscular upper extremity
facilitates the players to hit the ball with force and similarly more muscular calf
allows the player to run fast and it is also recognised that a lot of running around
is required. The less amount of subcutaneous tissue also aids the player while
running as the players will have to carry less weight.
3.4 RELEVANCE OF KINANTHROPOMETRY
Kinanthropometry is an emerging scientific specialisation encompassing the
application of measurement to evaluate human size, shape, proportion,
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Anthropometric and
Physiological Dimensions
and Practicing Anthropology
composition, maturation and its gross function. It is a crucial discipline for
problem-solving in matters related to growth, exercise, performance and nutrition.
The application of kinanthropometry has been extensively used in envisaging
the secular trend in increased body size of and among different ethnic groups
worldwide. The criterion developed using research in kinanthropometry can be
used as standards for physical recruitment in the armed forces as well as
streamlining and improving the fundamental measurement scale for
manufacturing uniforms and designing of furniture.
Body measurements of an individual hold significant position in the performance
of sports and as such these represent a critical element in the selection of the
athlete. We are familiar with the fact that a shot putter cannot give good
performance in the sprinting event and vice-versa. There has been number of
studies which have been conducted on physique and body composition of athletes
and sportsperson which reflect that the physique and body composition are explicit
in athletes and sportspersons of different physical activity.
Dental age is one such method which can be used in assessing the degree of
physiological maturity of a growing child. The emergence of dentition at a
particular age especially from six months to two years for deciduous dentition
and five to thirteen years for permanent dentition present decisive factor of
developmental age or it may be used as an index of physiological maturity.
There is a strong relation between adult stature of an individual and his stature at
childhood. It is a well recognised reality that stature is a key morphological
feature in majority of physical activity. The major task ahead of sports counselors/
coaches is to direct the sports probable in opting for an athletic activity ideally
suited to their adult stature well before their adult age. This would facilitate
them to undertake explicit training in particular athletic events. There is lot of
significance attached to the adequate calculation of adult stature and if feasible
of other physical dimensions in childhood. This would be a significant yardstick
to sports counselors for facilitating the sport probable in making a choice of a
particular sportive activity best suited to their prospective adult physique and
body characteristics. It goes beyond saying that such a counseling may go a long
way in steering clear of frustration caused after years of dedicated training by
those probables whose probability to attain the requisite physical status as an
adult are only slim. The distribution of height varies notably in different sportive
activities. It holds lot of significance that a good number of physical activities
are initiated by some of the sportsmen at the preadolescence age. Consequently
the sports counselor or coaches may possibly suggest the most suitable physical
activities to the sports probable say aged 9-11 years, keeping in view their adult
stature. Additionally, another responsibility of the sport counselor could be to
redirect the young children interests to some other appropriate physical activity
if they are following some incorrect physical activity due to change in different
requirement of adult stature than that anticipated to be accomplished by them at
childhood. Such corrective steps are likely only if suitable prediction standards
are available to sports counselors/coaches.
Physique and body composition play an important role in influencing the physical
performance of an individual. It has been noted that there is variation in growth
status during the adolescence period within the children of the same age groups.

Regular physical activities during childhood are responsible for a positive Kinanthropometry
influence on the performance of an individual throughout growth. This pattern
of transformation according to age in physical activity events brings out the
meaning of training as one of the essential factor in the progress. The attainment
of distinctive physical characteristics is of basic significance for sportsmen of
many sportive activities. Being short of such a characteristics is expected to
limit their performance during competition, particularly when such characters
cannot be altered by training e.g. under normal conditions.
Kinanthropometry’s significant goal is to study variations in various body
measurements not only among different individuals but also among different
populations. This facilitates in understanding the growth process and maturation
in individuals, subsequently its bearing upon physical performance and work
capacity of the individual.
Kinanthropometry aids in recognising and discovering the mystique of various
dynamic processes and phenomenon of life. Let us appreciate it from the viewpoint
of a human biologist. He may be interested in understanding the dynamic pattern
of height growth of an individual. What could be the reason of size change with
age of a person? He would measure a child’s height at different ages and realise
that it does not increase uniformly with age and there is variation. He would then
look for answers at different levels: tissue, cellular and molecular.
A large fraction of kinanthropometric work deal with physical performance. A
person can be trained for physical stamina on the basis of kinanthropometric
studies. There are specific training programs available for developing strength,
local endurance and cardiorespriratory endurance to their maximum. A training
program can be designed to match the specific energy source needed for an athlete
specific event or contest. The effect of training depend upon the type of exercise
involved in the training program, the individual’s previous level of training, and
how dedicated and motivated the individual is. There are some specific principles
and guidelines underlying the development of muscular strength and endurance
as well as aerobic and anaerobic fitness of an individual. The type of exercise
performed plays an important role in influencing the increase in blood pressure.
For example isometric type work generally causes a greater increase in blood
pressure than isotonic exercise. Prolonged physical work in untrained subject
leads to much quicker fall in systolic blood pressure (which indicate nearing
fatigue) than for the trained person. Endurance training also improves blood
pressure recovery process after exercise. In other words, the blood pressure of
the trained person returns to the pre-exercise level sooner than it does for the
untrained person. . Other factors which affect blood pressure and heart rate of a
person are: age, sex, posture, and emotion.
The uniform manufacturers can make use of the information provided by
kinanthropometry and somatotyping of the body configurations to fine-tune their
patterns and sizing system. The application of kinanthropometry also involves
phenotype as well as the morphological change of the discipline personnel before
and after physical training. By making use of the kinanthropometry the
relationship between genetic, physical exercises and body shape of these
disciplined force personnel can be determined.

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