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War Of The Three Kingdom – World History – Free PDF Download


  • After 1541, monarchs of England styled their Irish territory as also a Kingdom—replacing the Lordship of Ireland—and ruled there with the assistance of a separate Irish Parliament, while Henry VIII integrated Wales more closely into the Kingdom of England. Scotland, the third separate kingdom, was governed by the House of Stuart.
  • In the course of the 16th century Protestantism became intimately associated with national identity in England; Catholicism had come to be seen as the national enemy. BACKGROUND • The personal union of the three kingdoms under one monarch came about when King James VI of Scotland succeeded Elizabeth I to the English throne in 1603, when he also became King James I of England and of Ireland.
  • In 1625, Charles I succeeded his father, and marked three main concerns regarding England and Wales; how to fund his government, how to reform the church, and how to limit (the English) Parliament’s interference in his rule.


  • He duly became James I of England in 1603 and moved to London. He contravened the sovereign authority of the Scottish General Assembly and stopped it from meeting, then increased the number of bishops in the Church of Scotland.
  • After his death in 1625, James was succeeded by his son Charles I.Charles was less skillful or restrained than his father.His confrontation with the Scots came to a head in 1639, when he tried and failed to coerce Scotland by military means, the Bishops’ wars.


  • Charles shared his father’s belief in the Divine Right of Kings, and his persistent assertion of this standard seriously disrupted relations between the Crown and the English Parliament.
  • The Church of England remained dominant, but a powerful Puritan minority. The English Parliament and the king had repeated disputes over taxation, military expenditures and the role of the Parliament in government.
  • When Charles approached the Parliament to pay for a campaign against the Scots and the feud began.


  • Meanwhile, in the Kingdom of Ireland (proclaimed such in 1541 but only fully conquered for the Crown in 1603), tensions had also begun to mount.
  • Thomas Wentworth, Charles I’s Lord Deputy of Ireland, angered Roman Catholics by enforcing new taxes while denying them full rights as subjects; he further antagonised the native Irish Catholics by repeated initiatives to confiscate and transfer their lands to English colonists.
  • The idea of an Irish Catholic army enforcing what many saw as already tyrannical government horrified both the Scottish and the English Parliaments, who in response threatened to invade Ireland.

 WAR 1625

  • 27 March: After the death of his father, King James VI and I, King Charles I accedes to the throne.
  • October: In order to raise funds, Charles issues the Act of Revocation in Scotland, revoking all gifts of royal or church land made to the nobility.
  • October: Charles attempts to bypass parliament by raising funds through a ‘forced loan’, demanding money from taxpayers to finance war against Spain. 1628 7 June: The King signs the Petition of Right, legislation forced on him by parliament banning non-parliamentary taxation and imprisonment.

 WAR – 1630s

  • 1637: Charles I attempts to impose Anglican services on the Presbyterian Church of Scotland.
  • 1638: Signing of the National Covenant in Scotland
  • 1639: Conflict between Covenanters and Royalists in Scotland, beginning with the Covenanters seizing the city of Aberdeen in February
  • 1639: The Bishops’ War: Charles brings his troops into Scotland but decides not to attack but to negotiate instead. Signing of the Treaty of Berwick (18 June 1639)

WAR – 1640s

  • 1641: 23 October, Irish Rebellion breaks out in Ulster, with violence marked by the massacre of Protestants by Catholics.
  • 1642–1646: The First English Civil War
  • 1643: Ceasefire between the English Royalists and Irish Confederates declared • 1644: Scottish Civil War started.
  • 1645: the English Parliament forms the New Model Army
  • 1646: May: Charles I surrenders to Scots Covenanters, who hand him over to the English Parliament
  • 1648–1649: The Second English Civil War
  • 1649: 30 January: Execution of Charles I by the English Parliament
  • 1649: 2 August: in the battle of Rathmines, Parliamentarians rout an Irish-Royalist force outside Dublin; 15 August, New Model Army lands in Ireland — begins Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.
  • 1649: 11 September: Cromwell takes Drogheda; followed by Wexford on 11 October

 WAR – 1650s

  • 1650: Third English Civil War breaks out between the Scots and the English Parliament. Cromwell invades Scotland and smashes the Scottish army at the Battle of Dunbar (3 September 1650)
  • 1651: 3 September: the defeat of Charles II and the Scots at Worcester ends the Third Civil War. Charles II goes into exile in France
  • 1652: Surrender of the last Irish stronghold in Galway — guerrilla warfare continues
  • 1653: Surrender of the last organised Irish troops in Cavan.
  • 1654: The end of the Royalist rising of 1651 to 1654 in Scotland
  • 1658: 3 September: Oliver Cromwell dies. Succeeded as Lord Protector by his son Richard.
  • 1660: 25 May: Charles II lands at Dover. The Restoration of England, Scotland, Ireland, and the English colonies commences.


  • Having defeated all organized opposition, the Grandees of the Parliamentary New Model Army and their civilian supporters dominated the politics of all three nations for the next nine years.
  • As for England, the Rump Parliament had already decreed it was a republic and a Commonwealth; but Ireland and Scotland were now ruled by military governors, even as constituent representatives from both nations were seated in the Rump Parliament of the Protectorate—all which were dominated by Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector.
  • When Cromwell died in 1658, control of the Commonwealth became unstable.


  • the Convention Parliament would invite Charles II to return as king of the three realms—which was done by act of Parliament on 1 May 1660.
  • English Protestants experienced religious freedom during the Interregnum, but there was none for English Roman Catholics.
  • During the Interregnum, the New Model Army occupied Ireland and Scotland. In Ireland, the new government confiscated almost all lands belonging to Irish Catholics as punishment for the rebellion of 1641; harsh Penal Laws also restricted this community.
  • In 1660, Charles II was restored as king of England, Scotland, and Ireland.


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